Communal riots have become a definite feature of communalism in India. When conflicting organizations from two different made use of, which are home –conscious residential areas, clash, it results in a communal riot. An event is usually identified as a communal riot if (a) there is assault, and (b) two or more communally identified groups confront each other or associates of the other group at some point during the violence. you The reason for this kind of a conflict could be ” light ” and unimportant, though underlying them are more deeply considerations of political portrayal, control of and access to methods and electricity.
There have been various incidents of riots documented during the course of British rule and even before that. For example: In Ahmedabad there were riots in 1714, 1715, 1716 and 1750. Although according to Bipan Chandra, in his publication “Communalism in Modern India”, communal stress and riots began to arise only within the last quarter of the 19th century, but they did not occur in India on any significant size till 1946-472.
Ahead of that, the ideal communal rioting took place during 1923-26. A relationship among communal riots and national politics was established the first time in 1946, when the Muslim League offered its direct action call on August 18, 1946. 3 This chronology reveals that communal riots are not induced spontaneously and in addition that they are rarely caused by spiritual animosity.
They arise as a result of conflicting political interests, which are often linked to economic interests. There exists a significant difference in the design of public riots since the 1990s, which could be noticed in the later on part of this kind of chronology. This brings forth the adjustments that have occurred in the nature of communal riots in India. Additionally, the aim should be to underline that religion in most of the cases is not the reason why public riots occur. The reason for the occurrence of communal physical violence has been diverse in the two different levels. During the time of rupture, it was the clash of political hobbies of the high level of two different communities which resulted in communal riots. 4 But , from the sixties till the late eighties, the local personal and economical factors enjoyed a very important role in instigating riots. The emergence of Hindutva national politics in the last twenty years has been a cause of communal riots in this period where the regional factors have also helped in instigating riots. Communal riots that came about from the 1960s to the eighties follow a particular pattern.
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They have mainly occurred in urban towns that happen to be either professional belts or perhaps trading centers with the economic climate largely depending on a particular career. Most of these spots had a significant percentage of Muslim inhabitants whose economic or political interests clashed with the ones from the Ashtosh Varshney, Ethnic Violence and Civic Existence, (New Haven: Yale College or university Press, 2002), p. 309 2 Bipan Chandra, Communalism in Contemporary India, (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1984), Pp 4 three or more Ibid, 6th 4 Asghar Ali Industrial engineer, “Gujarat Riots in the Lumination of the History of Communal Physical violence, ” Financial and Politics Weekly, 12 , 14, 2002, pp. 5047-5054 -11
Hindus. Moreover, the riots occurred when the Congress was in electrical power in these says or through the short and uncertain stage of the Janata Party parti rule in the Centre. Riots in this phase might have took place in the neighborhoods or country areas like the Biharsharif riots, but they have often continued to be unreported. Therefore it is important to distinguish this period from the 1990s during which the BJP as well as sister agencies have been energetic in instigating communal riots. Communal assault since 1990s needs to be observed in the light from the changing political equations in the area. The decrease of the Our elected representatives and the emergence of the BJP as a strong political power resulted in changing patterns of communal riots. Communal physical violence in the last 20 years is a result of the manipulation in the religious comments of people by Hindu right-wing organizations pertaining to political profits. The politicization of the Mandir-Masjid issue as well as the subsequent demolition of the Mosque gave the BJP a chance to consolidate their vote bank. But in the method the controversy created a communal divide, and frequency of riots as well increased during this period. Since zone, never prior to has one specific incident led to the introduction of physical violence in nearly all the states. From the sixties till 1980 local factors played an important role in the emergence of riots, but since the overdue 1980s this kind of trend appears to be changing. Communal violence has always happened when the BJP has planned to expand the base. In the recent years the South Indian states, especially Kerala and Tamilnadu, have witnessed public violence and therefore are slowly growing into communally sensitive areas. This is primarily because of the the latest entrance of BJP in the political area of these states. Apart from Godhra, the different incidences of communal physical violence in the 90s have been small, yet they cannot be terminated.
These breakouts of public violence have never been natural, but are prepared, and often have support of the local organizations. The state support to riots is a long established feature in India, yet the condition has never been this kind of active individual in the physical violence before the Gujarat riots. Public violence features entered a new phase with the Christians and members of other community religions being created the patients of organized attacks. Communal riots through this decade have been completely both city and country features, but the extent of injury is always better in the growing centers of trade and commerce. Tribal population in the rural areas is being forced to get involved in the attacks on Christians and Muslims by bringing all of them within the Hindutva framework. Apart from economic factors, the call for Hindu oneness which is mainly a means to achieve political benefits is the main origin for public violence in this decade. Godhra was indeed the initial major communal riot that got this kind of a wide press coverage especially from the satellite channels. And so the media today needs to be more responsible, thinking about the influence that it can possess over the world. It is time which the media stopped any kind of biased reporting as it may further inspire the communal elements to instigate the masses. Politics parties have always had a hand in instigating and exploiting communal violence so as to meet all their electoral interests. Though public riots are condemned in numerous quarters, there is certainly still full inaction the two from the operations and the ruling governments in numerous states. Though religious conventions and bras are generally the starting parts of communal riots, still satisfactory security is definitely not supplied during these instances. There is also not much response against incidents of communal assault from the detrimental society. Till the time the political parties which start communal riots are voted to power, the incentives to combat communalism will not be in a position to develop totally.
Year Position Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Hindus, Muslims Hindus, Muslims Casualties Dead 5000 5000 Hurt 25000 3000 Inquiry Commission rate Result Remarks 1947 MarchAugust, 1947 Calcutta and Naokhali, Bengal Lahore and Amritsar, Punjab
Kota Kota Jabalpur elopement of a Hindu girl with a Muslim boy, son of a regional bidi maggiorente was the quick cause; rivalry between Hindus and Muslims in the bidi industry business rivalry between Hindus plus the Muslims, especially in the alcohol trade in Rourkela Justice Shiv Dayal Srivastava Panel intelligence office was inefficient, the law and order specialists responsible for laxity in exploration and criminal prosecution, resulting in significant acquittals
The riots in Bihar also led to largescale devastation of human lives and homes. Punjab was the worst impacted during the Rupture riots. It absolutely was the key for the issue of partition and therefore to the constitutional fate of India. In Lahore and Amritsar provided mobs murdered the people and burnt their homes scenario brought in check quickly situation brought in order quickly A brand new phase started out with the Jabalpur riots when local factors started playing an important part in instigating violence.
Rourkela, Calcutta, Jamshedpur 2000, mostly Muslims reaction to the atrocities committed against Hindus in East Pakistan. communal components were given a free hand by the administration Season Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons started as a result of brick playing baseball of a students’ procession recommending that Urdu be made the second official terminology of Bihar Casualties Lifeless 19 Hindus, 164 Muslims Injured Query Commission Raghubir Dayal Commission Result Comments August 1967 Hatia, Ranchi
feelings were agitated on hearing rumours about what occurred in Ranchi. The commission was essential about the inadequate procedures adopted by district power in Hatia; DM and SP new and inexperienced; political functions and time unions criticized It was around 1964-65 that communal disruptions began to occur in Aurangabad. The Jamait-e-Islami would not have any kind of active twigs till about 1964. The Jan Sangh in the last general elections found the first chance to approach the masses on the purely public platform as opposing Congress candidate in Aurangabad was obviously a Muslim. Majority of the Indio population of Karimganj was engaged in operate and business, the bulk of them were also linked to smuggling. The Hindus from the region resented the fact that Muslim smugglers had an border over these people, due to their relationships with the Muslim population in Pakistan.
accidental problems for a cow by a Muslim boy while he was trying to chase that away from his shop. Loot and arson by RSSJan Sangh and Congress personnel. Retaliation by Muslims a cow belonging to a Muslim trespassed into a Hindu house. When a Hindu son tried to chase the cow away, a couple of Muslims overcome him up 41 Hindua, 41 Muslims one incident of stabbing a Indio March 1968
Karimganj, Assam� Year Location
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Communal riots among Hindus and Muslims happened near the Jagannath Temple in September. The riots propagate to 25 more localities, in which about 512 individuals lost all their lives. It is alleged that handbills calling for a religious battle were given away to the rioters by the Jan Sangh as well as the RSS.
Casualties Dead 512 Injured Request Commission Rights P. Jaganmoha n Reddy Result Feedback Ahmadabad the havoc was caused by gossip, patrikas writings on blackboards and attention grabbing newspaper information; recommended the special subset of the Gujarat police would have to be reorganized.
Bhiwandi, Maharashtra Jalgaon, Maharashtra Hindus traced the disturbances to the molestation of the married Hindu woman by simply some Muslim youth.. May well 1970
17 Hindus, 59 Muslims one particular Hindu, forty two Muslims M. P. Madan Commission of Inquiry D. P. Madan Commission of Inquiry the MTM and Rashtriya Utsav Mandal shared joint responsibility for the riots statement held that there was simply no such occurrence. The Commission rate said that authorities officials with the help of some Hindus invented the story at a much later stage.
The Our elected representatives was not far behind in spreading public feelings. Many Congressmen took part in directly or indirectly in the riots and called the Muslims anti-national. The Hindu Dharma Rakshak Samiti was formed at this time. The members were largely midsection class Hindus. Ahmedabad’s fabric industry, which will provided largescale employment opportunities pertaining to Hindus and Muslims, was facing a catastrophe, and there was strong rivalry between the Indio and Muslim workers with this industry. The relief job that used the riots was not useful and the basic attitude for the riot subjects was unsympathetic. 1, 286 Muslims and 323 Hindus were busted after the huge range The day the riots occurred, 8th Might, all the mature officers were out of town. An additional immediate cause of the huge range was a fight that took place at a pan shop at Rath Chowk among a Muslim and several Hindus.
Communities/Organizations involved/Reasons riots broke out after the
announcement of the Bhiwandi riots over All India Radio. in Nonari, the riots began on 12-15 November following Muslims killed a Harijan leader; a crowd of 15, 000 attacked Muslim houses and shops and began looting and arson. In Sajni on 12 12 , a crowd of 5000 started looting and arson after a few Muslim boys attempted to molest a Hindu Gode girl of another community. A Hindu boy, who was beaten up by the Muslims, saved the woman; rumor was spread the that the Indio girl was raped riots started the moment students through the Anglo-Bengali College or university and teenagers from the next to locality of Muslim weavers clashed above the question of whether the growing of yarn by weaver boys on the part of a playground was restricting the room available for college students to play
Casualties Dead Harmed 9 Hindus, 6 Muslims Inquiry Commission rate D. G. Madan Commission of Inquiry Result Feedback May 1970 Mahad, Maharashtra
criticized the political celebrations for exploiting communal emotions. in Nonari, 107 properties of Muslims were looted and 76 were wear fire November 1972
Nonari and Sajni, Uttar Pradesh October 1977 Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh� Muslims were stabbed after getting dragged out of your cinema lounge and several injured
The police started the riots by going to the Muslim vicinity and beating up the weavers. This generated a worsening of the circumstance and further rupture taking place. In another incident the authorities did not help to make proper plans when a Indio procession was crossing lady locality. The authorities, instead of shooting at the miscreants in the stabbing incident, began firing for the Muslims.
Yr Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Casualties Deceased 23 Hindus, 2 Muslims Injured Query Commission End result Remarks March 1978 Sambhal, Uttar Pradesh
a big trading centre pertaining to smugglers and bootleggers. There were trade rivalry between the Hindus and the Muslims who wished to dispossess the Hindus of
their property. Commerce in Aligarh involves the secure industry, which is owned simply by rich Muslims. But there is also the exploitation of the Muslim workers by these owners. Every time a riot occurs the lock owners come out as protectors in the Muslim employees and afterwards continue all their exploitation with the workers. The Hindu investors, who happen to be followers with the Jan Sangh, had control of the recycleables for the lock industry. The Indio traders also benefited from the riots because they got possession of a little more territory by occupying the terrain of the patients, which they generally leave as a result of fear. nineteen 264 had been arrested; Chenna Reddy, the then Primary Minster of the state, began addressing Ganesh processions, after this incident pertaining to political increases.
Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh immediate reason for this specific riot was your murder of a Hindu. A procession was led challenging the treatment of the killer but violence erupted if the procession was crossing the Muslim populated area. Throughout the riots the ruling party office bearers used strong-arm methods to secure the release of some antisocials arrested by police as a preventive measure. a particular group started out throwing stones on a Ganesh procession composed of 2000 people.
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Season Location
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons a joint Ramnavmi retraite passed through a location which had a significant population of both equally Muslims and adivasis. The area MLA played out an active function in invoking the riots.
Casualties Useless 120 wiped out, more than half had been Muslims Harmed Inquiry Percentage Jitendra Narain Commission of Inquiry
Effect Remarks 04 1979 Jamshedpur, Bihar figured the RSS, with its considerable organization in Jamshedpur and close links with the BJP and the BMS, had a hand in creating a local climate propitious pertaining to the outbreak of these disturbances. It even more said that not just a single Hindu was slain by the Bihar Military Police in 22 hours of firing resorted to by police pertaining to quelling the riots. The population of Moradabad is distributed between Hindus and Muslims. The town’s brassware sector is the main method to obtain its profits. Most of the artists in the industry happen to be Muslims, nevertheless the traders and exporters with the finished items are Hindus. There has been a long standing competition between the Muslims in this area plus the Valmikis, traditionally sweepers. Continuous clashes occur between them above land, as well as the straying of pigs into the Muslim locality. riots in Moradabad was followed by Biharsharif, Merrut, Baroda, Bhiwandi, Pune and Sholapur. The PAC played a communal role, and in one particular incident 12-15 Muslims were killed by the PAC.
Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh
Id-prayers were disrupted 1500 to and scores of persons, 2000 which includes many young kids, died in a stampede with the Idgah. The riot happened on this particular occasion each time a police policier on duty refused to chase a this halloween when asked by Muslims in the Idgah. A number of Harijan slums and Muslim asylum camps were attacked.
Year Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons a quarrel in a toddy shop owned by a Harijan. The trouble erupted in the Gagandiwan village creating a majority Muslim population. There is also classic rivalry between Hindus and Muslims over the piece of land which usually both stated as their very own. dispute on the Shiv serenidad and a Mazaar in two plus buildings inside the highly sensitive Shahghasa place Casualties Useless around 80 Injured Inquiry Commission Balasubraman ian Commission set up by Bihar Authorities
Result Feedback April 81 Biharsharif, Bihar failure in the intelligence machines and the Region Administration deceiving the higher regulators by not really providing a appropriate assessment.
The police did not consider effective action to control the clash, which ended in rioting. The pass on of fake rumors damaged the various other villages in Biharsharif. The hold of the RSS as well as the Jammat-e-Islami in these areas even more increased the violence
Sept. 2010 1982
In the elections that took place prior to the riots, woman MLA was elected, displacing the BJP candidate. Soon after, the riots broke out over a unimportant issue. Outdoors forces, which included the Shahi Imam of Delhi’s Jama Masjid and some BJP leaders joined the fray. The worst sufferers of the riots were the Ansaris, Muslim weavers.
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons communal rupture occurred if the Dussera and Muharram coincided. The liquor traders via both areas looted and clashed with each other. The news from the transfer from the Hindu Police Commissioner because of pressure from your Muslim community spread just like wild fireplace, and triggered a deteriorating of the scenario. The Hindu leaders utilized the opportunity to criticize the Islamic Muslims intended for opening an Islamic research centre in Baroda. 19 riots occurred in the city in a short span of twelve months. riots were started off simply by group rivalry between the Our elected representatives (I) MLA of Malur and the exCongress (I) MLA
Casualties Dead 17 Injured 50
Following the 1969 public riots, Baroda had observed a planned boycott of Muslim shops and companies, which generated deterioration in the economic condition of the Muslims. There was the rise of Islamic Fundamentalism and public activities in the RSS and BJP. The illicit liquor trade was flourishing during that time in Baroda with a large number of shops advertising local brands. Both Hindus and Muslims owned these types of shops. The constant competition amongst these shop owners often aggravated the case.
May 1983 Malur, Karnataka
Three months prior to riots a Harijan females was raped by three Muslim young ones and it had been the communal, rather than the lawbreaker aspect of the condition, that received much importance. Soon, an additional incident of molestation of the Hindu lady by a Muslim boy occurred. The REALLY SIMPLY SYNDICATION took full advantage of the situation, and started some partisan Hindus to consider revenge. Immediately after, trouble engulfed leading to large-scale damage to Muslim property. Public disturbances in Malur were unknown before the advent of the RSS.
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons The bursting of crackers before the Jama Masjid to celebrate the triumph of the Indian Cricket crew in the World Cup led to communal riots Casualties Dead Hurt Inquiry Commission payment Result Comments June 1983 Malegaon, Maharashtra October 1983 Hazaribagh, Bihar procession led by Hindus turned violent after Muslims stopped that near the Jama Masjid
operate rivalry between your Hindus as well as the Muslims is usually marked. The Muslim loom-owners sold only to Muslims, which in turn affected the profits of Hindu traders. Cow slaughter is a sensitive issue, and Malegaon is the simply district where 36 butchers had been convicted and imprisoned for three several weeks for violating the Cow Slaughter Act. The situation made worse after the after that Chief Minister, A. R. Antulay, floated the idea of making a martyr’s memorial to honour people who had dropped their hails from the freedom struggle. The Malegaon authorities came up with names, all of which were
Muslims. The Hindus objected to this as these people had been involved in doing damage to temples. This problem had been in charge of escalating the tension in 1982. There were an frustration by the Muslims at that time as well for dropping a section from the regular VIII background textbook exactly where it was stated that the Prophet Mohammad fled to Great place caused by neglect by the private sector organisations; while regional political market leaders persuaded the members of both the communities to start the Moharram retraite and the Chaitra Ramnavmi procession to pass on communal a harmonious relationship, the actual purpose of these commanders was to gain political benefits out of the scenario. The Police inspite of being conscious of the situation did not have effective actions
Year Location Communities/ Businesses involved/Reasons desecration of a mosque, followed by the call for a bandh by MIM (Muslim Itthadul Muslimeen) party.
Casualties Useless 45 Injured 150 Inquiry Commission Consequence Remarks Sept 1983 Hyderabad May 1984 Bhiwandi, Maharashtra
A Shivaji Jayanti 146 procession led to large scale communal violence; the ban for the Shivaji Jayanti procession following the 1970 riots was resented by the Shiv Sena.
611 October 1984 Delhi anti-Sikh riots shattered out in Delhi and most parts of North India after the assassination of the after that prime Ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) Mrs Indira Gandhi by simply her Sikh bodyguards 2733, mostly Sikhs Justice Jaggannath Misra Commission rate of Inquiry formed in 1985. It happened in 1999, the Justice Nanavati Commission began the investigations.
Jaggannath Misra Commission recommended the fact that Delhi administration investigate the conduct from the delinquent police The results of the Nanavati Inquiry Commission rate revealed that law enforcement force performed a vital role in instigating assault.
The BJP, RSS, VHP and the MIM appeal to communal statements and raise communal stress on the eve of elections and religious festivals. From 1979 to 1984 there have been constant communal clashes in the city. newspaper publishers added additional fuel for the communal physical violence by disclosing the identities of the victims. The Our elected representatives (I) and the TDP include formed electoral alliances together with the MIM The Muslim populace in Bhiwandi has increased considerably since 1970 and many of them set up their own powerloom sectors, which was borrowed by Marwaris. Therefore , through the riots, the Marwari godowns were not destroyed in Muslim areas. The rise in the quantity of smugglers and
underworld activities as well led to public tension. The quantity of Pakistani nationals staying intend to in the town was around one lakh according to the unofficial figures. The pattern of the riots showed that they had been organized and planned against a particular community and the many senior Our elected representatives leaders had been alleged to have participated in the anti-Sikh riots. The main charged in these riots were They would. K. D. Bhagat, Sajjan Kumar and Jagdish Tytler. All these older Congress market leaders were exonerated till the CBI upon July 10, 2003 recorded an appeal against a lower court which acquitted Sajjan Kumar.
Yr Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons anti-reservation turmoil Casualties Useless 300 Wounded Inquiry Percentage Result
Feedback April 85 Ahmedabad city court in April 1986 pronounced the death sentence on five Muslims recharged with the getting rid of of eight persons throughout the riots.
There is large-scale low income among the Harijans and the Muslims who primarily live in the slums of Ahmedabad. Hence the Muslims and Harijans did not
respond to a bandh called to protest the reservation policy by the top caste frontrunners. This eventually led to the burning straight down of their houses and devastation of their property.
July 1986 Ahmedabad violence broke out during the historical Rath Yatra procession through the walled city areas. Disruptions started following the annual Rath Yatra of Lord Jagannath was subjected to a heavy natural stone throwing obstruction in the hypersensitive Dariapur and Kalupur localities
Year Area Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Casualties Dead 6th, 75 Injured 40 Inquiry Commission Group Commission went by Shri N. C. Saxena Consequence Remarks April, May 1987
blamed the police for its biased attitude in its statement and stated that the Indio communal organizations aggravated the specific situation.
riots started after having a Ramshila retraite was ended. After the Ramshila procession, female local innovator with personal ambitions took out a rally around the occasion of Milad-un Nabi, the Prophet’s day. The procession was passing through the streets of Indore when ever two explosions took place ultimately causing confusion and after that the riots broke out.
7 Hindus, 20 Muslims
The PAC had murdered a number of teenagers and chucked their systems into a cacera during these riots. The press however played a positive role in unveiling the communal role played by the PAC in eradicating innocent persons. In Apr 1995 that the Mulayam Singh Government declared that the 19 guilty policemen would be prosecuted. The lower-middle class, the middle strata with the population experienced participated in large numbers during these riots, when large section of the Harijans attacked localities inhabited by the Muslims. In some areas the rioting was between the Harijans and Muslims. The mere presence in the PAC in Muslim the greater part mohallas a new feeling of low self-esteem among the Muslims, while Hindus wanted the deployment of PAC in their localities. There is a trend of public violence that took place in Kota, Badaun, Bhagalpur, Ratlam, Mhow, Khargone, Khambat, Palanpur and several other areas. result of communal politics played by the BJP, VHP and the RSS, in fact it is interesting the fact that violence occurred in Congress work states. The violence in Indore and also other areas were the result of political rather than spiritual overtones. It was soon after this kind of wave of violence started out that elections were announced. Local factors also played out a significant position in the breakthrough of assault. Muslims kind 10% from the total
population of Indore and are largely backward, both monetarily and socially, but the crucial fact is which the Hindus plus the Muslims have different political loyalties which encouraged the BJP and the Congress leaders to use the situation to their benefit. Many Muslim family members suffered from police excesses.
Season Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons riots pennyless out on the occasion of Anant Chaturdashi when Hindus took away a procession. The retraite was designated by the participation of a quantity of Akhadas that have been a part of the VHP, REALLY SIMPLY SYNDICATION and the Shiv Sena. Inspite of warnings the administration would not make appropriate arrangements at the time of the retraite. riots took place during the Ram memory Navami retraite
Casualties Lifeless Injured Inquiry Commission End result Remarks Sept. 2010 1989
Kota, Rajasthan The Muslims in Kota happen to be poor, apart from the Bohra Muslims whom are a organization community. But a large number of Muslims from this place went to the Middle-East and became prosperous. And so the dependency relation between the Muslims and the Hindus was disrupted. Moreover, together with the coming in the
Center of Of india Trade Assemblage, controlled by the CPI (M), there have been more strikes and partisan trade union actions. Hence, the associations between the Hindus and the Muslims ceased being cordial in the late seventies itself. The Muslims suffered the most in the riots and among them the Dawoodi Bohras were the most detrimental victimized. 5 Hindus, 13 Muslims. Bhadrak had a population of 70, 000 Muslims at the time of the riots and two Muslim Congress leaders were well-liked in that area. The economy of Bhadrak was under the control of Marwaris and Oriya Hindus. But monetarily there was simply no competition involving the Hindus plus the Muslims. The Marwaris utilize some Muslims and there is a lengthy standing argument between the business employers and the staff on the revision of pay out scales. Of these riots the Muslims looted the Marwari shops and burnt them. The Muslims who had previous voted to get the Congress in the 80s switched all their loyalties for the Janata Dal. The BJP was also trying currently to get a good hold in Orissa. Therefore it decided to remove Ram Navami processions in many places inside the state. They took away a retraite at Bhadrak too and surprisingly the police allowed it to pass through lady locality.
March 1989 Bhadrak, Orissa
The mobilization campaign for Kar Sevaks to set up the recommended Ram Janma Bhoomi Brow at Ayodhya on thirtieth October 1990 aggravated the communal ambiance in the country. Communal riots took place in the wake up of D. K. Advani’s Rath Yatra wherever it went.. These kinds of riots were led by RSS-BJP guys to consolidate the’Hindu’ political election bank. We were holding widespread over almost all the states from Assam to West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Deb elhi. Year Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons nearly 1400 communal situations 120 riots Casualties Useless 224 38 Injured 775 170 Rioting, arson and looting was witnessed in Vyara and Bulsar towns of To the south Gujarat. The violence continued in Ahmedabad, Bapunagar, Baroda and
Ankleshwar. 2 hundred persons of the minority community were detained under TADA, but amongst these there have been no charges could possibly be established against 178, neither any explosives or weaponry recovered. 144 Inquiry Commission Result Feedback
April to December 1990 January and April 1991 October 1990 Gujarat Gujarat Ahmedabad assault began right after 41 the Rath Yatra was started from Somnath
Rajasthan March 1990 March 1990 Jaipur Jodhpur, Rajasthan
hate campaign organized 52 by the BJP since the Rath Yatra started from Somnath VHP, BJP and Bajrang 20 Dal called for a Jodhpur bandh to protest the arrest of L. K. Advani 100+
>From the early morning of the bandh, BJP market leaders including MLAs terrorized a section of the people by using physical force and provocative devise, which ended in communal physical violence. The operations shielded the miscreants although adopted antiMuslim postures. Curfew was made in 49 districts
12 months Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons after the BJP chief started the Rath Yatra Casualties Dead 33 Injured
Query Commission Effect Remarks October, 1990 Lucknow November 1990 Agra April-May 1990 Kanpur
situation inside the city was tense due to the Rath Yatra by L. K. Advani. The episode that triggered riots was the stabbing of any scooter rider. 20 to 22 similar incidents occurred during the same time for different locations. The city was a victim of communal riots thrice in a year.
thirty-one mostly Muslims army had to be deployed. Although despite their presence it probably is difficult to bring the situation in check and the riots became a typical feature for two months. The VHP leaders in the community were involved in instigating communal sentiments. The location remained disrupted for nearly two months, despite the curfew imposed. 669 arrested.
Public violence lead from a clash between mafia dons to establish a foothold in politics simply by communalizing occurrences that ended in violence. The location was tensed during this time due to the Rath Yatra organized by the BJP, RSS OR ATOM and VHP. Therefore public riots may break out with slight excitation. But the riots that broke out in May were arranged and organized. It started with the extreme BJP stormtroopers taking out procession in Muslim dominated Lakkarmandi area and hurling abuses at the community. This was a followed by retaliation from handful of Muslims and 4 persons got killed. The following day disturbances started out again due to a BJP meeting which has been right looking at a heavily populated Muslim area. This kind of led to communal riots plus the police got no control over the mafia.
Year Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons commenced in Chandni Chowk place when D. K. Advani’s Rath Yatra was passing through Casualties Lifeless 100+ Harmed Inquiry Percentage Result Comments October 1990 Delhi August 1990 Hailakandi, Assam October 1990 Beawar, Maharashtra
Hindus demanded a government storyline for the development of a Saat Temple which usually for a very long time was typically owned simply by all the neighborhoods and intended for all community functions. The District Magistrate, Halakandi during those times was a Muslim and the BJP exploited this kind of factor to its own gain. VHP and BJP gave a require Baewar bandh to demonstration against the detain of D. K. Advani
30 to 40 people that were members of the move attacked the Deputy Vorbeter of the Fatehpuri Masjid. When the news from the attack for the Imam spread to the other areas riots out of cash out in Lal Kuan and Jama Masjid Chowk Communal tension started to rise the moment VHP, RSS OR ATOM and BJP organized pujas to cleanse the bricks for Shilayas at Ayodhya. The constant migration of people from Bangladesh also instigates violence between two areas
In an effort to close Jai Mandir Cinema hall, a fight erupted between students as well as employees. The RSS and BJP gave this small incident a communal viewpoint. The administration formed tranquility committees to take care of communal tranquility. The tranquility committees acquired representatives of various political get-togethers and spiritual organization. Just read was the very folks who instigated communal violence.
12 months Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons RamjanmabhoomiMasjid controversy Casualties Deceased Hindus, 896 Muslims Hurt Inquiry Commission payment Result Remarks October 1989-90 Bhagalpur, Bihar
Bhagalpur Communal Riots Query Commission posted its statement after half a dozen years nevertheless the members has not been unanimous within their findings in the riot. While two members of the commission blamed the BJP-VHP and the Muslim fundamentalists for the riots, the Chairman Percentage held the Congress dependable.
October 1990 November 1990 Patna Indore, Madhya Pradesh Rath Yatra organized by the BJP 18-100+ 7 Hindus, 6 Muslims 150 demand to set up an Inquiry Percentage was declined by the Primary Minister
center for criminal offense, and the politicization of crime. There are a many Muslims close to Bhagalpur. Various Muslims happen to be either weavers or in the powerloom organization. Some Muslims are well-todo businessmen or property owners. The intelligence resources and the everyone was well aware with the likelihood of riots breaking away, but did not stop the Rath Yatra procession and allowed it to pass through female dominated area. There is powerful rivalry between two factions of the Our elected representatives here, which can be reflected through gang wars even before the riots. Team rivalries emerged during the dispute between the Hindus and the Muslims in the celebration of their conventions. The Superintendent of Authorities played a blatant partisan role during the riots. Along with Bhagalpur city about 206 towns were influenced. 3000 powerlooms were looted and burned up. 1100 Hindus and 900 Muslims caught 7 properties and your five shops burnt and almost 8 Mosques damaged; large scale injury to property. riots here continued for a few days where a Mosque was destroyed and a Brow desecrated.
Season Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Casualties Lifeless 60 Hurt Inquiry Percentage Interim Report an organization named the CFD 350
Result Remarks December 1990
Hassan, Mandya, Madikeri and Mysore, Karnataka Hyderabad Hyderabad the arrest
of the BJP chief, T. K. Advani, in Bihar a deal with between two gangs of land grabbers belonging to distinct communities; stabbing of a hawker boy
blamed a local organization, the Indio Yuva Sakti for the poker site seizures leading to the riots
Following S. Banagarappa took over the Chief Ministership via Veerendra Patil, he formed a state level committee to get bringing public harmony BJP and RSS exploiting the Rath Yatra, Kar Seva and Ram memory Temple to ignite public passions. The MIM as well joined the fray. It had been assumed that the killer has to be Muslim, and soon one hundred and fifty persons apparently belonging to the Our elected representatives went on a stabbing gratify. In this episode 20 Muslims were wiped out. The Majlis retaliated by simply killing migrant construction employees and each time a construction worker was killed, the BJP proceeded a retraite with the physique. This started further assault and the riots lasted for 10 days, The riots halted after the resignation of the Key Minister Chenna Reddy. a direct result aggressive electioneering by the BJP; since the ambiance was already anxious this little incident was only a reason to start the riots. Metropolis once again observed communal frenzy on the celebration of Muharram. The regular riots inside the city can be a result of communal politics. In addition, the city is incredibly congested with Hindus as well as the Muslims living almost in segregation. There is also a high rate of joblessness, poverty and lack of education, which exacerbates the riots.
October 1990 December 1990 April-July 1991 Baroda a boy was struck by an auto rickshaw� Position
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons Rioting began about Election Day time when the Hindus allegedly prevented the Muslims from voting; In November the riots began with the Kali religious procession prepared by Nav Sangh Club. Its people were divided into two organizations, one of which was led by the BJP-VHP-RSS. If the procession moved into a Muslim vicinity, slogans were shouted, and crackers had been burst. Gossip spread which the idol was broken by the Muslims.
Casualties Dead 50+ Injured Request Commission Consequence Remarks MayNovember 1991
Benaras, UP In Benaras, a large number of Muslims are weavers and they endured the most throughout the riots. The rioters were led by the PAC. The majority of the Muslims are weavers though some possess turned entrepreneurs and are profitable. The present stage of riots in Benaras is also a result of the developing competition between the prosperous Muslim entrepreneurs and traditional Hindu traders. The authorities force in Benaras after the Ram Janmabhoomi episode was highly communalized. Between 1967 and 1991 Benaras seen 12 public riots. In November 1991, Instead of the antisocial elements it was the police that looted and terrorized the Muslims. Public riots erupted on the Election Day, since the BJP was upset that this would to lose the Meerut
city seat. The Janata Dal candidate received the Muslim and Dalit votes as the BJP got the Hindu votes. There were thus a total polarization of votes. The violence shortly spread to 13 even more villages inside the area.
May possibly 1991 Baroda, UP 5 Hindus, twenty four Muslims March 1992 Sitamarhi, Bihar
a religious procession applied for by one particular community was stopped simply by another community
Riots after the demolition of Babri Masjid Year Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons A bandh was called by a Muslim corporation which did not have a great deal of following among the list of Muslims. The bandh was followed by the damaging of any dyeing generator and soon the situation deteriorated into a huge range. Casualties Dead Less than 2 hundred, 95% Muslim Injured Surat has a substantial population of Muslims who also are mainly in to the trading business, and have a close business relationship with the Hindu investors which was the key reason why attributed intended for communal a harmonious relationship in Surat. The joblessness level inside the city was also low. But , through the late 1980s, there was developing incidents of crime since migrant workers who are certainly not rooted in its culture have got settled inside the city. The hate plan by the RSS-BJP combine likewise added gasoline to the scenario. The Babri Masjid Action Committee and other Muslim frontrunners also played with the thoughts of the Muslims. The ambiance in Surat was anxious and the Babri Masjid incident provided the
opportunity for organizations to start the riots. The manner in which large scale looting and burnings took place revealed that the riots were pre-planned. Inquiry Commission payment Result Comments December 1992 Surat Season Location
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons the repeated showing with the debris in the Babri Masjid by BBC instigated more violence; woman mob bombarded a temple which put into the bear 1993 – the Shiv Sena seemed to have been finding your way through these riots
Casualties Useless 400+ and 600+ generally due to police firing and mostly Muslims Injured
Inquiry Commission Proper rights Srikrishna Commission Result Feedback December 1992, January 1993
Bombay blamed the Shiv Sena chief, Bal Thakeray and Sena activists to get the riots. It blamed them for his or her ‘political role’ in fomenting communal craze and arranging attacks about Muslims. On the role in the Congress government in the
State, the Commission observed that ineffective political management, vacillation intended for political reasons and inconsistant orders released to the Commissioner of Law enforcement resulted in a dilemma to shoot or perhaps not to take. 30, 000 Muslims were displaced. Upon 9th 12 , mobs of Hindu men entered Muslim homes, ransacked their things, often getting rid of a family member. The primary victims during these riots had been the poor Muslims and also the middle-class Muslims of BHEL township of Bhopal. The state authorities was not capable to provide the sufficient security to folks and the law enforcement officials also performed a vital role in aggravating the situation.
December 1992 Bhopal 143, majority Muslims Year Position
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons A great time in the Indio Munnani business office in �charpe
Casualties Lifeless 4 Harmed Inquiry CommissionResult Remarks 03 1995 Madras April, 1995 Chitradurga, Karnataka Kerala
The spring 1995 a quarrel among two sets of bus brokers belonging to two different communities Riots out of cash out among Christians and Muslims. go to by users of the Nationwide Minorities Commission
The bomb was grown by a Muslim youth who was also accountable for planting a bomb inside the RSS business office in August 93 when 13 people were slain. The Munani was targeted because of a provocative speech delivered by their State Director, Rama Gopalan. There was an excellent blast in Rameshwaram where a BJP activist was also stabbed to death; over the years, there has been an increase in the activities with the RSS-VHP. The Muslim population in the point out is quite prosperous as compared to Muslims in other claims but again with an increase in the flow of Middle East money there’s also been a rise in the Muslim fundamentalist activities in many parts of the state. The state has become communally sensitive following your BJP expanded its politics base here. It did not have a past history of communal riots A place of worship was damaged in the riots and fishing gear worth a lot of lakhs ruined The Muslims alleged that the police had been a noiseless spectator. One of many Samajwadi Get together leaders supposed that the violence was designed to punish the SP workers by Mayawati government. Though the small town Rajputs reinforced defusing the conflict, the attitude with the village
head was instrumental in instigating the violence.
June 1995 Rankhandi, UP Hindus objected to the construction of any mosque. Following your Mosque was finally made, a crowd collected and damaged it
1 in authorities firing� Yr Location
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons four Muslims were wiped out in a close over a boundary wall Communal clashes occurred on the occasion of Ganapati procession
Casualties Dead a few Injured
Query Commission Consequence Remarks September 1995 Palmau, Bihar Sept 1995 Madras and Hyderabad 2 in Hyderaba d 100+
January 1998 Kanpur an harm on the Vorbeter of a mosque; the protests following that turned to rupture between Hindus and Muslims
February 1998 Ajmer, Rajasthan
alleged to have already been started by some communal element among the list of shopkeepers beyond the Dargah of Ajmer Sharif local police in the State are highly communalized and the corrupt state of affairs further aids in the occurrence of communal physical violence In Madras stones were pelted in Muslims who had been offering praying in a Mosque. It was so-called that the Hindu Munnani commanders had a turn in the clash. The riots in Hyderabad were more serious due to a past great communal riots in the condition. The police believed that the rupture were a great outcome of the Lok Sabha elections which were to take place. Kanpur has also been communally volatile before and in the recent years, with all the organization of rallies and processions by BJP the number of such occurrences has increased further. The city contains a large population of Muslims and the huge range was. You will find shops possessed by the bulk community away from Dargah yet houses happen to be of the
minority community, and miscreants set these kinds of shops and houses ditch. A memorando presented for the Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral alleged that the law enforcement entered the Dargah using their shoes as well as lathi charged the people giving prayers and in addition fired up.
Year Position Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons riots followed the blasts that killed 60 people it had been alleged the fact that blasts were organized by al-Ummah and alJihad agencies, aided and abetted by ISI Casualties Dead Harmed Inquiry Commission P. L. Gokulakri shna Commission of Inquiry Effect
Remarks February 1998 Coimbatore a definite course on the part of law enforcement personnel, deputed for surveillan e and checks, who ought to include discharged their duties more rigorously, diligently and smartly.
Moradabad, College or university Press Rioting broke out after a great acid container was tossed on the ‘taziah’ procession allegedly by BJP supporters riots started each time a Muslim mafia coming out of a Mosque nearby the Charminar in the old city went berserk and assaulted shops in the area. The trouble began following your circulation of the anonymously made pamphlet lampooning the spiritual sentiments of Muslims June 1998
The target in the attack was allegedly M. K. Advani who was to address an selection meeting inside the city. The police arrested some 500 people in connection with these blasts. Coimbatore had witnessed communal riots in 1997 as well plus the Hindu Munnani activists had been alleged to have played the role in those riots. While M. K. Advani escaped the attack, BJP got a whole lot of sympathy votes. Coimbatore has also been a center of Muslim fundamentalist actions and the BJP has been trying to expand its political bottom in the metropolis. Around 70 people were arrested including several political market leaders who attempted to visit the huge range affected areas. The Moradabad riots required a serious turn mainly because of the alleged participation of the personal parties. the army was alerted plus the Union Residence Ministry was urged to send the Para-military force. There was different factors given to get the occurrence of the riots but most pointed the obligation of the distinct political celebrations. An ex-mayor of the metropolis who was accused of distributing these pamphlets surrendered, and there were five more busts made in this kind of connection.
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons the VHP and Bajrang Dal active supporters and workers terrorized the Muslim community over a few Muslim young boys marrying tribal girls
Casualties Dead a couple of Injured Query Commission Result
Remarks July 1998 Bardoli and Sanjeli, Gujarat Oct 1998
Nalanda and rupture erupted within the Mungher, Bihar issue of immersion with the Durga idol in the Katrapar locality in Nalanda Ahwa and the BJP and Bajrang Dal Dang districts, bombarded Christian Gujarat churches Suratkul, Karnataka Manoharpur, Orissa a great eve-teasing occurrence involving woman boy and a Hindu girl Graham Staines, a great Australian-born Christian Missionary was burnt in along with his twins by VHP activists led by Dara Singh
The VHP consider the tribals as Hindus and placed ‘dharma sabhas’ in these neighborhoods. After every these kinds of event, Muslim shops were looted and burnt. The authorities was asked to stay aside and threatened with staying transferred. Marriages between Indio girls and Muslim boys are opposed by these types of organizations and Christians also have come under attack in several parts of Gujarat. Some two hundred copies from the Bible were burnt by Sangh Parivar activists declaring that they had been a means to convert the people. The leaders of numerous political parties tried to gain political mileage out of the episode. In Munger, 27 persons including 3 policemen had been injured. Though a serenity committee was constituted by the state home minister, the committee users traded charges and Christians were even accused by members of being ‘naxalites’. The riots continued in January the following 12 months and had been encouraged by Hindu Jagran Vedike Following the Babri Masjid attack if the VHP and Bajrang Dal could not appeal to the support of the world, they began following a new strategy simply by attacking churches.
December 1998 January 99
CM JUGENDHERBERGE. Patel ordered an query The Wadhwa Commission
figured Dara Singh was in charge of the killings, but would not see the hand of some other communal organization.
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons riots broke out after a couple were slain on the event of Mahavir Jayanti and Idul Fitr. Riots pennyless out once again in This summer after a great Indo-Pak crickinfo match Casualties Dead one particular Injured Request Commission End result Remarks January-July 1999 Ahmedabad July 99 Harda, MP September 99 December 99 Surat Auranagabad December 2150
Kolhapur, Karnataka a communal mob faced the police as well as the Deputy Superintendent of law enforcement officials was killed. violence out of cash out throughout the Ganapati festival a procession of Muslims and the Samajwadi party associates to tag the 7th anniversary in the demolition of Babri Masjid was lathi- charged by the police riots broke away when some individuals of the community community would not close all their shops after a bandh was called by the Shiv Sena over the eradicating of an Military Jawan within a bomb huge increase in Kashmir – twenty nine –
In the second episode, there was a great organized try to distribute crackers among the kids. The cricket match episode was accompanied by the Kargil
war, when demonstrations were held against Pakistan in which both Hindus and Muslims participated. However , in many presentations objectionable devise were brought up. Curfew was clamped in the area plus the violence continued for a couple of days and nights. About 80 persons had been arrested with this connection. 28 government purchased a legislativo enquiry The riots had been a result of a dispute in the route to be taken by the procession The Shiv Sena experienced flooded the full area with saffron red flags just before the riots. A number of journalists had been injured inside the police lathicharge. The police got also authorized the Shiv Sena to organize a religious wedding ceremony just before the riots broke out. The shops which in turn did not close were stoned by a 10, 000 strong crowd. some injured Season Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons after the Jama Masjid was gutted due to a short routine
Casualties Deceased Injured Request Commission Effect Remarks January 2001 Kishtwar, Jammu Drive 2001 March, 2001
Nalanda, Bihar Kanpur two teams clashed on the occasion of Holi in Shambhu community the protest march applied for by the Learners Islamic Activity of India (SIMI) within the burning of a copy from the Quran turned violent
The state came under the spell of communal politics after the emergence of the Jamaat-i-Islami which commenced as a ethnic organization. After it earned 5 seating in the Set up elections, that started showing its communal colors. There are numerous other communal organizations which may have come up now in Kashmir and terrorist activities further more encourage public violence. Through the years the BJP has also gained some politics mileage in the state. Superintendent of Authorities brought the case under control The procession was fired upon by the PAC killing doze persons, all young Muslim boys. The PAC was itself a party to the looting that followed. The SIMI has spread communal poison over the years and started the heads of Muslim youths through provocative cards. In spite of its controversial part the PAC is used as soon as a disturbance emerges. The retraite was applied for to demand the police arrest of people who were involved in the structure of a religious structure in a village near by.
April 2001 Beawar, Rajasthan
a VHP-BJP procession was stoned and miscreants plonked bottles of acid into it
Year Site Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons physical violence erupted following your murder of your youth belonging to the minority community following an incident of eve teasing Casualties Deceased Injured
Query Commission ResultRemarks June 2001 Chamrajnagar, Mysore Jamner, Maharashtra June 2001 July 2001 Moradabad, UP a team of miscreants attacked the houses of the minority community
Aug 2001 August 2001 Amravani, Maharashtra Ahmedabad October 2001 Malegaon, Maharashtra
Shiv Sainiks attacked Muslims who were choosing their oxen for slaughter hawkers belonging to the minority community were defeated up in the Maninagar place. arrest of any Muslim youngsters distributing essays outside a Mosque 2 1 in police firing 30 15, including some policemen a number of
12 persons were used into guardianship after the riots. Arson and looting occurred on a mass but there is no loss in life. Many people came out into the roadways carrying swords and started out looting and burning real estate. The population of Muslims from this town is actually quite significant, whereas Sarpanch and the MLA both belonged to the BJP. Those active in the looting and arson fled the town and were not imprisoned even a number of days following the incidents. no person was imprisoned. The police declared that the purpose behind the clashes could have been robbery. However a deputation of the Jamait-ul-Ulema visited the village and refuted the authorities theory, because those slain were not of very good and had almost nothing in their homes worth slowly destroying. The police arrested 70 individuals in this interconnection. Four Bajrang Dal active supporters and workers were imprisoned for inciting violence.
13, including several in authorities firing Season Location
Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons the burning at Godhra, of a coach of the Sabarmati express that was coming from Ayodhya, carrying kar sevaks
Casualties Dead 2000+ Injured
Query Commission A lot more than 30 studies have been made by various committees. On Mar 6, 2002, inquiry committee under Justice (Rtd. ) KG Shah and Justice Nanavati founded
Result Comments February, 2002 Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Their prevalent finding has become that it was a one-sided carnage and not a riot in the usual perception.
The physical violence continued for approximately a month. The administration in addition to the government do nothing to control the violence and right-wing organizations such as the VHP and Bajrang Dal got complete support in spreading violence. The Modi federal government benefited from all this as the BJP won the Assembly elections in December, 2002.
February 2002 Kaithal, Haryana linked to the Gujarat violence 03 2002 Drive 2002
Bhivani district, a mob of 300 persons Haryana had been incited simply by rumors of cow slaughter Rajasthan assault occurred around the occasion of Muharram. Instant reason for the violence was your organization of any yagna within a temple by VHP, BJP and Bajrang Dal
Mobs pulled straight down a Mosque and considerable damage was done to home. The police manufactured feeble efforts to stop the mob, which will later destroyed the Macesoleum of Pir Nurani Badshah and substantially damaged 3 others. two mosques and 15 shops and homes belonging to the Muslims were attacked The population with the area comprises 25 percent Muslims and was at one time considered to be a stronghold of the SIMI.
Yr Location Communities/Organizati ons involved/Reasons riots started when a few Muslim organizations led by Muslim Vikas Parishad gave the call for a bandh to protest against a Christian Baptist priest in the US conveying the Forecaster as a terrorist Celebrations more than India’s win against Pakistan in the World Cup turned violent Casualties Deceased 9 Harmed 115 Query Commission Consequence Remarks Oct 2002 Sholapur, Maharashtra
The protestors gone in retraite after prayers on Fri afternoon and threw rocks at a Navratri pandal. The Hindus retaliated and riots pennyless out.. five-hundred arrested.
03 2003 Gujarat 1 in Gujarat being unfaithful several anywhere else several Related incidents also took place in Vadodara, Gorakhpur, Gajrawadi, Kolkata and Bangalore Marad was a case of planned assault when a lot of well informed men arrived and slain members of your particular community.
May 2003 Marad, Kerala About the Author B Rajeshwari is a Analysis Scholar at the Center for Personal Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru College or university, New Delhi. She is publishing her MPhil dissertation titled “Power, Knowledge and Globalisation – A Case Study of TRIPS. ” Her research interests include issues associated with Communal Violence, Governance and Development. Presently she is Study Assistant with the Institute of Peace and Conflict Research.
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