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Key Features of research paper abstract example 2019

Before we start discussing examples of annotations, it is necessary to understand what a term abstract actually is. In essence, an abstract is a shortened version or outline that describes a larger project. In other words, thanks to the abstract, you can characterize the content and central points of your project while separately highlighting the objective of writing an abstract, the literature review, the methodology for creating the project, and also indicate the results (sometimes they can be further published in a scientific journal).

At the same time, the primary objective of an abstract is to inform about the primary aspects used that are contained in your reasoned essay or scientific paper.

! Do not forget that an academic abstract most often only describes your project and does not describe the subject as a whole.

Concentrate on the experience itself

Basically, you will need to characterize in an abstract those definite steps that you are taking and not the topic itself on which your project is based. For example, when writing your research paper, there is such a social question as ‘Donating to the poor’. In case of an abstract, you can conduct a certain kind of research on this issue and touch directly on such points as what sort of people donate most often, how important it is to help poor people, or how you can help by donating. In this case, it is not specifically about the donation phenomenon itself. It is about the examination of why people do this, how important it is for society, and what one can learn from that.

Skills you need to demonstrate here

Research work is not only a summary of the selected subject that contains actual sources of information. This is an extended version of an essay which is intended to find the author’s personal skills such as:

  • Interpretation of the subject taken from a journal or a book;
  • Value judgments;
  • Clear argumentation of literature and citations;
  • Demonstration of knowledge on the subject;
  • Writing skills;
  • Vocabulary level, etc.

There are also cases when readers, in addition to the task of writing an essay, also ask students to write an abstract on this subject. Even though the abstract is not such a voluminous material, not every student can smoothly perform this work in given terms. Also, if a paper you are writing is a review or contains a particular search process, then most likely you will also need to provide an abstract on this work. Nevertheless, do not be afraid to write an abstract because this is a relatively easy word task, and after reading a page or two with our recommendations, you will surely succeed.

types of annotations

Different types of annotations

It goes without saying that writing abstracts can be not only on different topics but also have specifics depending on the project. Most of the essays are primarily informative in nature. Nevertheless, this does not exclude the options for abstracts, taking into account the specifics of certain scientific projects. Thus, the types of abstracts include:

  • Critical abstract. This type is intended to characterize all the necessary information on the work. In this case, the abstract should be accompanied by the required comments and clear facts that confirm the reliability of ideas and also form the discussion itself. Here the author needs to search for one of the articles of interest and conduct a comparative analysis with other studies on a similar subject title. The author also has to indicate all the information about the examination itself and supplement it with various judgments that will show the completeness of the study.

! As for the scope of an abstract, in this case, it can be performed up to 500 words length.

  • Descriptive abstract. This kind of paper format is carried out in a descriptive analysis manner and is intended to analyze the current abstract while excluding comparison with other papers on similar topics. Most often, this type of task is limited to only 100 words length at university. Here you can indicate directly the objective of the examination as well as all additional background information. In this case, a simple indication of the article review methods is used.
  • Information abstract. This is one of the most common types of essay that is used today in educational institutions. When writing this paper, the author should follow an examination on the topic, provide introduction arguments and indicate the result of writing the work. Even though the text excludes comparison with similar topics, the writer will need to include the conclusions obtained during the study and the author’s personal recommendations on this issue in the writing.
  • Highlight the abstract. This type of university paper is mainly done to attract the attention of the readership. Nevertheless, its usage in academic curricula is quite rare. Often this kind of abstract is the shortest in volume and should attract the attention of the reader starting from the title or a first line. Writing highlight abstract involves the usage of the most straightforward words and phrases that can convey the nature of the problem examination, indicate the most relevant results, and also sum up all the outcomes of this work. Besides, you can specify the most significant moments in bullet points.
  • Indicative abstract. Most often, this type of essay is used by good authors for such types of works as essays or books. In this case, the abstract will consist of three primary parts: a body of work, argumentation, and outcomes. In the first section of the work, it is necessary to indicate a complete list of materials and initial premises page.

In the argumentation, it is necessary to demonstrate the main arguments as well as counterarguments, which will correspond to the order in which they are present in the original work.

! Mind that in the final part, the author will need to point out the main argument and also draw a quick conclusion on all the work.

Guide on how to write a research essay as efficiently as possible

In order to better imagine what the abstract sentences really are, the easiest way is to compare them with the trailer that comes out before the movie is shown. In this case, before you can decide how to write a clearly structured research paper, you will also need to make a key short summary that will be written in accordance with all the requirements.

You may ask why this is necessary at all? The fact is that most often, a professor checks your word synopsis before starting to verify your article. The easiest way to do this is with the help of a material written in your central research work.

Therefore, build on the fact that the summary for your research project should contain a concise version of your main article. Thus, you can provide the readership with the opportunity to summarize information and findings of your primary work, the methods that you used for review, as well as in all the major points and aspects that are directly related to your great paper.

Basic rules and tips for writing abstracts

As we have already determined, the main idea of writing essays on research is to inform the readership of the primary outcomes made as well as the main guidelines of your research. Often the style format of papers to be written is determined relative to the scientific field in which the work is composed. In this case, it is important to take into account the rules for writing this type of work, which include:

  • The purpose and motivation of the essay discussion. In the introduction section of the work, you need to tell directly about the problem that you plan to solve or about the issue that you want to research. Thus, you can explain to the reader why your privacy research is really relevant and also important for further research on the chosen topic.
  • The usage of various methods and style approaches. After you state the importance of your paper, you will also need to check and explain with what research ways you wrote this paper.

! Avoid going into details. Focus on the characterization of the most important information that characterizes your chosen options.

The results of the studies one needs to get

As part of writing your essay, you must show the reader a brief summary of your great research. It is in this place that you can indicate a particular digital report and precise statistics questions to read. Please note that the usage of quality words such as ‘many’, ‘majority’, ‘most often’, ‘huge number’, is simply unacceptable. Also, you can note whether you were able to obtain the necessary results during the study and whether your examination was successful.

Also, pay attention to conclusions from the results of the study. This part of the report describes the results of the examination as well as their likely significance for science and the world as a whole. Try to characterize the results modestly. If not, an overly ambitious statement can be met with a flurry of criticism from professors.

results of the studies
Young student between books dreams the graduation

Research paper abstract example

To consolidate all the material on this subject, we suggest you take a look at one of the social research examples to get a more accurate idea of what your essay sentences might look like. In this case, we will talk directly about the primary parts of the abstract and thesis sentence that are done exclusively for educational objectives. In essence, the writing of a thesis statement is done in the framework of one or more paragraphs.

The research sentence topic of an abstract: ‘The examination of changes in the vegetation cover of the Amazon jungle after the effects of soil erosion’.

Purpose: Read and identify the early stages of environmental stagnation after soil disturbance.


  1. Check and determine the basic composition of vegetation located on the earth’s cover, taking into account the early stages of succession;
  2. To reveal the full dynamics of changes set in the process of phytocoenosis within a three-year period;
  3. To analyze the possible process of further development within the framework of the analyzed process of phytocoenosis.

Research methods: visual observation and random statistical sampling.


As part of the study problem, the process of changing the vegetation cover after the common harmful effects of soil erosion, which can cause long global changes in the ecosystem of the Amazon jungle, is considered. According to the findings of the examination, soil disturbance has a direct contact with the recreational processes of the vegetation cover.

After conducting specific research that included 10 different places of the sample, all the main indicators and characteristics are presented in this document in the form of tables and statistics. Thanks to the implications data included, it is possible in the future to monitor and describe the dynamics of changes in the vegetation cover over more extended periods and taking into account the phytocoenosis process guidelines.

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