Do you need help writing an essay? For Only $7.90/page

Tpn hypokalemia essay

Alys Latimer, Layla Mohamed, and Sandra Zheng

what IS tpn?

Total Parenteral Diet (TPN):

Infusion of intravenous nutrition (macro- and micro- nutrients)

Those with contraindications to oral diet approach

Specialised mixtures of amino acids, dextrose, lipid emulsions, electrolytes, minerals and vitamins

Infused centrally into internal jugular or subclavian blood vessels

INDICATIONS: comatose, inadequate GI function, completebowel rest, and paediatric disorders

ADVERSE ISSUES: infections, post-op wound complications, immune endanger, fluid/electrolyte discrepancy, GI blood loss, etc .

(Arya et ‘s., 2013)

What is hypokalemia?


Normal Results: 3. your five 5. 0 mEq/L

Important Values: &lt, 2 . 5 mEq/L

Potassium (K+), essential part of necessary protein synthesis and maintenance of normal oncotic pressure and cell electrical neutrality

(Pagana & Pagana, 2013)

Signs and Symptoms of Hypokalemia

Commonly not present until Potassium levels are much less than several. 0 mEq/L

Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia are normally related to heart failure, skeletal, and smooth muscle weakness

CARDIOVASCULAR: flattened T-wave and visible U-wave, STREET segment despression symptoms, conduction abnormalities, dysrhythmias, worsening hypertension, abrupt death

KIDNEY: polyuria, hypokalemic nephropathy, improved risk of nephrolithiasis, and chloride-depletion metabolic alkalosis

CNS/NEUROMUSCULOSKELETAL: tiredness, malaise, hyporeflexia, weakness, cramping, paralysis, myalgia, and rhabdomyolysis

GI TRACT: Constipation, throwing up, prolonged gastric emptying, paralytic ileus, beoing underweight, worsening hepatic encephalopathy

GU TRACT: hypotonic bladder

PULMONARY: respiratory acidosis, respiratory failing

ENDOCRINE: insulin amount of resistance and disability in insulin release

(Asmar et ‘s., 2012, Elgart, 2004, Pagana & Pagana, 2013)

Tips on how to treat hypokalemia?

Treatment Options:

GOAL: identifying defined cause of hypokalemia, prevent the progress life-threatening consequences, and correct any potassium shortage which steering clear of hyperkalemia


Handle underlying disorder if possible

Deal with with sixty 80 mEq/d of KCl via PO in divided doses

Reassess serum potassium focus after alternative therapy and adjust consequently

SEVERE HYPOKALEMIA (&lt, several. 0 MEQ/L):

Preferred: 40 mEq/d of KCl through PO q3-4h TID

Reflect on serum potassium concentration after replacement therapy and adjust accordingly

If necessary: 10 20 mEq/h of KCl through IV (in setting of cardiac arrhythmias, recent or ongoing cadiac ischemia, and digitalis toxicity

Continuous heart monitoring is mandatory

Reassess serum potassium focus q2-4h (ensure that serum potassium attentiveness is &gt, 3. a few mEq/L)

(Asmar et approach., 2012)

Thank you


Asmar, A., Mohandas, 3rd there’s r., & Wingo, C. S i9000. (2012). A physiologic-based method to the treatment of a

patient with hypokalemia. American Journal of Kidney Conditions: The Official Log of the Nationwide

Kidney Base, 60(3), 492 497. doi: 10. 1053/j. ajkd. 2012. 01. 031

Arya, We. N., Shah, B., Arya, S., Dronavalli, S., & Karthikenyan, N. (2013). A review of literature on modernparenteral diet. International Diary of Medical Science and Public Health, 2(4), 801 806. doi: 15. 5455/jimsph. 2013. 030920131

Elgart, H. In. (2004). Examination of essential fluids and electrolytes. AACN Specialized medical Issues, 15(4). 607-621. Retrieved from:

Pagana, E. D., & Pagana, T. J. (2013). Mosbys Canadian manual of diagnostic and laboratory tests (First

Canadian ed. ). Toronto, ABOUT: Elsevier Canada

Prev post Next post