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Epidemiology paper dissertation

This will paper discuss one of the deadly disease in the world call Tuberculosis OR TB. The aim is to prevent the disease and prevent the propagate of the disease from the teaching that the community health nurse will provide. An individual may die in the event that TB is left untreated.

Active Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis OR TB is an infection caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This respiratory ailment that in most prevalent in the lung area. (World Overall health Organization, 2014). Other parts with the body are influenced by TB is definitely the brain that causes tuberculosis meningitis, genitourinary TB, gastrointestinal TB, tuberculosis lymphadenitis, cutaneous TB, Uterus ovarian TB and Osteo articular skeletal bone tissue and joint TB(articles base, 2008).

It really is curable and preventable. TB is contagious and is transmitted through the surroundings from a person together with the active respiratory system disease and after that another person inhale this infectious droplet.

Energetic TB indicator from the chest are hacking and coughing, and with bloody sputum present at times, weakness, heart problems, fever, weight loss and night time sweats.

Once the microbes enter the surroundings it takes only a few of them to infect another individual (World Health Organization, 2014). People with lively TB normally have positive TB skin test and blood check. The chest x-ray is often positive and positive sputum culture (Centered for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).

Latent Tuberculosis

Another sort of TB is referred to as Latent TB infection. This kind of TB have got bacteria that may lay dormant in a person body and not make them sick. The individual with this TB are with no symptom and are also not infected and therefore unable to transmit this kind of disease to someone else. However, if the bacteria become active and multiply, then the person will build up the TB disease. Likewise if the immunity process is poor and the person is not able to fight off the infection, the individual will develop the active disease, become sick and pass on the bacterias to others. There are numerous people with Latent TB that never develop the contagious TB disease.

About your five to 10 % of these people will develop the TB disease at some time of their life. Usually a TB skin test or blood test will show the TB infection, nevertheless the chest x-ray andsputum tradition is normal.. People who have HIV/AIDS are at greater exposure to possible developing TB due to a weak immunity process (Centered for Disease Control and Reduction, 2012).

Treatment for Energetic Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis

Active TB treatment be made up multiple antibiotic being presented simultaneously no less than six month to cure the disease. The program is four antibiotic intended for the first two months and after that decreased to two antibiotics for the last two months. The majority of the antibiotics are given in tablet form. The antibiotics of preference are classified by generic kind as follow, ethambutol, Isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampin, cycloserine, ethionamide, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, para- aminosalicylic acid, and streptomycin. Sometimes steroids medication are used in the event that inflammation exists. But the medication has to be taken as prescribed. If doses of medication are missed this could cause a postpone in treating the disease. (Everyday health, 2014). The Latent TB treatment consist of the antibiotic isoniazid for half a dozen to twelve a few months to prevent the TB disease from progressing to an energetic status for most people.

But also taking a blend of two antibiotics for a few months is a good approach to treat latent TB, although a health care provider has to monitor anybody taking the medicine in order to prevent the latent TB from becoming active because of a person missing medications (Everyday Well being, 2014). “There are particular treatment tips for people with HIV and TB, people with drug resistant TB, children with active TB and women that are pregnant with effective TB (Everyday Health, 2014).

Complications of TB Treatment

A person lung could become permanently damage if the treatment are not began early. Difficulty in breathing can designed, the infection can travel to different organs within the body and also the contagious disease may developed a resistance to the medications. A person not taking their very own medicine while prescribe can cause a capacity the medications and make the disease harder to cure (Rodriquez, 2014). There has been a great escalation inside the resistance of TB prescription drugs that has been used for years. This resistance has affected every single country which was surveyed. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) happens when the very best two medication , Isoniazid and Rifampicin happen to be taken plus the bacteria will not respond to medication. The main reason to get MDR-TB with the wrong kind of treatment or perhaps the drug can be notused effectively and often the drug is of poor quality. It is treatable and curable although is more pricey. When the comprehensive chemotherapy is used in the remedying of MDR-TB, it will require up to two years to treat the illness and can produce a severe reaction in a person (World Health Organization, 2014).

Tuberculosis could be misdiagnosed since the symptoms can be the same indications of other disorders. It is vital for taking a good wellness history and physical examination. Taking a blood ensure that you Tuberculin pores and skin test may determine if the individual has been afflicted or subjected to active TB. A torso X-ray is needed to see lesions on the lungs that is due to tuberculosis. A sputum sample is obtained to confirm this current of the TB bacteria (Centered for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Some people needs to be admitted in to the hospital and placed in a particular room that filters out TB bacteria from the air. This will likely prevent medical care workers and also other people in the hospital from contracting the TB infection. It is likely that a person is not to keep the room right up until 3 sputum samples happen to be obtained and shows that a person can no longer propagate the infection (Everyday Health, 2014). Also the side effect of the strong medicines use needs to be monitor. Some drugs could cause the liver organ to become irritated, kidney and nerve damage and within vision. Loss of life can occur in the event TB is usually not remedied and healed (Rodriquez, 2014).

Demographics and Health Figures

“Tuberculosis OR TB is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer throughout the world due to a single infectious agent (World Wellness Organization, 2014). There were about 8. 6th million persons in 2012 that contracted TB and 1 . 3 , 000, 000 deceased by TB. Around 95% of those death happen in the low class and middle category income countries. TB is approximately the third cause of death in women grow older 15 to 44. Regarding 530, 000 children developed the TB in 2012 and 74, 000 HIV negative children deceased from TB. One 6th of people which includes HIV dearly departed from TB which is the main killer to them. The Millennium Developmental Objective for 2015 is to overturn the distributed of TB, which as of now the number of people contracting TB decreasing annually but incredibly slowly. TB death rate declined by 45% among 1990 and 2012 (World Health Corporation, 2014).

Epidemiology Triangle of Tuberculosis

Host Factor of Tuberculosis incorporate the age, cultural background, contest, education and economic status. This explain the host or the individual that is affected by the disease and what made the consumer more acceptable to contact TB. It could be a mixture of many reasons, just like chronic disease, weak immune system systems or a recurrent TB or various other diseases (Maurer & Smith 2009). The Agent Element of Tuberculosis is a bacterias known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis that is certainly transmitted throughout the air by respiratory droplets (World Health Organization, 2014). The Environment contains the air, family, community, community policy, and workplace, monetary status, housing population, and culture and health providers. All of these can affect the person after and before TB can be contracted. Anyone living in a crowed population is most in danger of being exposed to TB. The as well as the community is at risk for acquiring and growing TB. If the public has no policy to guard individuals, put them at a top risk. The individual’s is definitely affected by their particular attitude, overall health practices, not any insurance, and not able to obtain proper health care (Maurer & Smith 2009).

Roles with the Community Health Nurse

The city Health doctor is responsible for examining the community pertaining to communicable illnesses and needs in the community and start the process and report findings to the ideal person or group. The nurse take on the role as the teacher, instructor, and counselor. It is important to get the doctor to help stop the spread of disease and illness in the community by providing education. The health and social requirements are to be assessed. The doctor is experienced of contagious diseases and familiar with epidemiologic data in order to assess the demands and complications in a provided community. The nursing process must be used while using principles of epidemiology to supply the appropriate care.

Educating the community in regard to communicable disease such as the risk elements, prevention and exactly how they are sent and importance of good cleanliness. Follow-up proper care is needed to evaluate and measure the outcome in the community. The nurse should work with other health care employee motivates within health habit in people, families, teams, and residential areas that have lifestyle to be able to promote and maintain health (RN pedia. com, 2014).

Countrywide Agency

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been dedicated to protecting health and promoting standard of living through the prevention and control of disease, damage, and impairment. CDC is always working 7 days a week and twenty four hours a day to protect America from overall health, safety and security hazards, both foreign and in the U. S. Whether illnesses start at residence or in the neighborhood, the disease could be chronic or perhaps acute, treatable or avoidable, the CDC fights disease and supports communities and saves patient lives (Centered for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).


Tuberculosis is a fatal disease. It is preventable and curable. Thousands of people contract this kind of disease and millions of people expire from this disease yearly. Educating from the registered nurse to the community is very important to stop the disease and prevent the spreading the disease. Nurse are to be proficient themselves with the disease and help in promoting and keeping the community healthy.


World Well being Organization. (2014). Tuberculosis (TB). Health Theme. Retrieved coming from Universe Health Corporation. (2014). Tuberculosis. Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

Articles bottom. (2008). Various other or Different Types of Tuberculosis? Gathered from Centered pertaining to Disease Control and Avoidance. (2012). The Difference between latent TB contamination and The TB disease? Specifics Sheets. Retrieved.

Rodriquez, D. (2014). Monitoring Tuberculosis Treatments. Day-to-day Health. Finding from Everyday Health. (2014). Multiple Drug Remedy for Tuberculosis. Retrieved by Maurer, Farreneheit. A., & Smith, C. M. (2009). Community/Public overall health nursing practice: Health pertaining to families and populations (4thed. ). St Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier. REGISTERED NURSE pedia. com. (2014). Community Health Nurse Roles and Functions. Gathered from

Centered intended for Disease Control and Avoidance. (2014). CDC Organization. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives and Protecting Peoples. Retrieved coming from


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