The Glass Menagerie, by simply Tennessee Williams, is a play that explains to the story of a mother, Amanda, and her two children, Laura and Ben. Laura is known as a young woman who suffered with a disease that left her crippled, emotionally and literally. Tom gives home a gentleman harasser for Laura at the request of his mother. The Glass Menagerie not only indicates the playwright’s sister Rose’s diagnosis of schizophrenia and her lobotomy, but also Williams’ feelings about the procedure. Williams’ had a close relationship along with his sister and doted on her behalf. He were raised experiencing Rose’s episodes of insanity and blamed himself for her lobotomy procedure (Morton). Therefore , Tennessee Williams was affected by his sister’s schizophrenia and lobotomy, resulting in his memory perform, The Cup Menagerie, plus the development of Laura’s character.
A lobotomy is a form of psychosurgery that requires the going of slots into a person’s head to treat chronic mental disorders and behaviors. One of the initial psychosurgeries was performed by Gottlieb Burckhardt in 90 and Ludvig Puusepp in 1910, nevertheless , both cosmetic surgeons decided the fact that procedure was far too hazardous to be executed on sufferers. In 1935, Portuguese specialist AntoÌnio Egas Moniz and surgeon Pedro Almeida Lima brought back psychosurgery and customized the treatment. “Holes were drilled into the patient’s head after which injected with ethyl alcohol”, in which the alcohol was used to “disrupt the neuronal tracts” that they believed caused the recurring the signs of a patient’s mental illness (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). Created simply by Moniz, the leukotome utilized to be inserted into the drilled holes within a patient’s brain, “designed specifically to disrupt the tracts of neuronal fibres connecting the prefrontal emballage and thalamus of the brain” (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). In 1936, medical doctor Walter M. Freeman 2 and physician James W introduced the method to America. The two men modified the procedure and called it the Freeman-Watts common lobotomy, through which it was revised again in to the transorbital lobotomy ten years after. The transorbital lobotomy essential a sharp tool to be forced into the vision socket to break the bone tissue behind the sockets, and after that “inserted into the frontal lobe and accustomed to sever connections in the brain” (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica). The current form of lobotomy today has become modified through the entire years and a few operations had been reported to work for several sufferers. When other designs of therapy and therapy had been developed inside the mid-1900, the lobotomy became less well-liked, but , it can be still seldom used to treat some mental illnesses today.
Schizophrenia was among the disorders that have been treated by a lobotomy. This common psychotic disorder alters the way one particular thinks, seems, and acts. The term “schizophrenia” was coined by Swiss professional Eugen Bleuler (Piotrowski). Symptoms usually start to develop inside the twenties intended for males and females, and after that progresses being a person gets older (Piotrowski). Symptoms of schizophrenia are separated into three categories: positive, adverse, and intellectual (National Commence of Mental Health). Confident symptoms happen to be thoughts and behaviors that are present in people with the illness. Symptoms can include hallucinations, delusions, and withdrawal via reality. Persons often befuddle hallucinations and delusions, thinking that they are the same thing. Hallucinations involve seeing or perhaps hearing points that other folks do not, while delusions are misconceptions regarding the actual truth and truth. Negative symptoms are thoughts and actions that are “taken away” via someone with schizophrenia. Adverse symptoms of this disorder can include “disconnected speech patterns, damaged sentences, abnormal body motion, and purposeless activity” as well as “extreme anger and hostility”. Cognitive symptoms deal with your thinking, with cognition which means reasoning or perhaps understanding. Symptoms can include “poor ability to appreciate and help to make decisions, trouble focusing, difficulties with “working memory”. There is not one exact cause of schizophrenia, the same as how there is not just one purpose as to why an individual has major depression or any additional mental illnesses. But the psychotic disorder may be caused by “genetics, the environment (viruses or malnutrition), and/or mind chemistry” (National Institute of Mental Health). Schizophrenia may not be cured, nevertheless there are ways to handle this mental illness including medication and therapy. When schizophrenia influences about “one percent with the general population”, it is even now a serious disorder, with Flower William’s falling victim towards the illness, and Tennessee Williams as the witness.
Tennessee Williams puts a personality in his very own shoes due to Rose’s schizophrenia and lobotomy. With history knowledge of the playwright’s lifestyle, readers can easily conclude that Tom Wingfield is a literary representation of Tennessee Williams. Williams’ true name can be Thomas Lanier Williams, and Tom Wingfield is the young brother of Laura Wingfield. Not only will be the two men’s names similar, they are also the two younger brothers of their fragile sisters. One more factor is that Tom can be described as poet who works within a warehouse, especially a boot warehouse. Williams also worked in a shoe company, but then became a playwright rather than poet. Additionally , Tom cares for you deeply pertaining to his older sister, Laura, in the same brotherly way Williams do for his older sis, Rose. In Scene 4, it is early morning and Laura is to get chausser for her mother. But when she rushes out the door, she stumbles over her legs and falls: “A second later she meows out. Mary springs up and crosses to the door. Tom opens the door” (Williams 689). In this situation, Tom’s 1st instinct is usually to quickly navigate to the fallen Laura, knowing that she is crippled and this any assistance would be useful for her. As easy as this act of kindness could possibly be, it plainly portrays Tom’s brotherly love for Laura, the way Williams’ fondness performed for Increased while growing up.
Also in Scene IV, Tom reveals more of his brotherly fondness for Laura. After Tom and Amanda’s argument, Laura pleads with Tom to apologize for their mother: “Don’t make Mom nervous¦ Jeff, speak to Mom this morning. Make up with her, apologize, talk to her! inches. Tom states with Laura that his mother made a decision to not speak with him initial. But after having a few exchanges with Laura after your woman leaves, he sucks up his pleasure and apologizes to his mother. With knowledge about Williams’ resentment toward his mom for enabling Rose’s lobotomy, readers may speculate that Tom apologized to Amanda to satisfy Laura’s request, never to truly makeup with Amanda. Tom sees that Laura is mentally “crippled” and will “brood” about the things the lady notices, therefore staying about bad terms with Amanda could possibly generate Laura worried and unhappy. In Field III, ahead of Tom’s apology to Amanda, the mom and child argues regarding little things and this individual ends up contacting her an “ugly”babbling old”witch” before taking off for the night time (Williams 687). It has been reported that Williams had a “bitter resentment of his mom for allowing Rose being so callously mistreated” (Morton). Therefore , Tom’s quarrel with Amanda symbolizes Williams’ grudge and hate for his mother, Edwina Williams, intended for allowing Rose’s lobotomy. However not only do Tennessee Williams create a character to represent himself, he developed a character to symbolize his sister as well.
To further share his rancor about his sister’s state and operation, Tennessee Williams turned Rose Williams in to Laura Wingfield. Rose Williams is the older sister of Tennessee Williams, and Laura Wingfield is a older sibling of Jeff Wingfield. The first specific similarity from the two females is their perception of reality. Rose Williams was diagnosed with schizophrenia and experienced a lobotomy for this. A single symptom of schizophrenia is revulsion from truth, and it is unknown whether Laura is schizophrenic or not really. However , in the introduction in the play, it truly is noted that Laura’s circumstance of the fact is much more serious than Amanda’s failure “to establish exposure to reality” which she is “crippled”. Readers can easily theorize that Laura’s belief of reality is also skewed in the way schizophrenics are. As well, Laura staying crippled might not apply to her physically, by which “one of her leg is slightly shorter than the other”, but she is as well mentally crippled. Even her brother, Tom, acknowledges her behavior and disability, exactly like Tennessee Williams with his sis.
In Scene Sixth is v, when Mary talks to Amanda about getting Jim O’Connor home for supper, Tom remarks that Laura is “terribly shy and lives in a global of her own” (Williams 697). He further clarifies to Amanda that Laura is “peculiar” because “she lives in a world of her own”a world of little cup ornaments”. Schizophrenics not only withdraws from actuality, but they can experience hallucinations as well. It is a possibility that Laura hallucinates in a associated with her glass collection, since she, as a 23-year-old girl, personified her glass unicorn to John O’Connor in Scene VII: “He won’t complain regarding it¦ every one of them seem to get along nicely together¦ I have not heard any argument one of them! ” (Williams 712). With knowledge of Increased Williams and analysis of Laura’s figure, readers can easily conclude how come Laura’s goblet unicorn is one of her favorites out of her collection. A unicorn is known as a horse having a horn in its head, making it quite unique. This uniqueness inside the play parallels with Laura and her fragile, yet schizophrenic patterns and her “clumping” calf brace (Williams 708). Yet , this uniqueness in the real-world connects to Rose and her schizophrenia. When the car horn breaks through the unicorn after falling off a table, this kind of symbolizes Increased Williams’ lobotomy. Laura units Jim that she will “just imagine he previously an operation¦ to make him feel less”freakish”. The “operation” parallels with Rose’s lobotomy procedure, to create her “just like all the other horses”. But , as apparent as the similarities might be, critics may disagree that Rose Williams’ condition and operation experienced any effect on the playwright.
Critics may believe The A glass Menagerie acquired nothing to do with Tn Williams’ personal life and feelings. The first disagreement would just be a supposition that Rose’s condition and lobotomy did not affect the playwright on a personal level. But , this speculation is ludicrous as Williams’ had a weakness for his sister and was near to her. Additional plays simply by Tennessee Williams were also drafted to echo his lifestyle, such as Abruptly Last Summer season and The Night of the Iguana, in which the “heroine” was “inspired by Rose”. However , the characters in the Glass Menagerie are the nearest representation with the people in Williams’ life, himself included. The similarities between Mary Wingfield and Tennessee Williams are just also coincidental. Another argument will be that Flower Williams got no impact on the playwright’s development of Laura’s character. If this sounds the case, then the similarities among Laura and Rose can also be much too coincidental. Why will Laura also be the more mature sister of “Tom” who also exhibits schizophrenic actions of a altered reality? If Tennessee Williams was by no means affected by Rose’s schizophrenia and her lobotomy, he would not need expressed his remorse and bitterness in his plays, particularly The Cup Menagerie. Williams felt responsible for not “being able to avoid the procedure” of Rose and was “haunted” by it. Therefore , with coincidental similarities between characters, specifically Laura, and the counterparts, it truly is evident that Rose became the muse behind Williams’ plays.
Sharing a detailed relationship together with his older sibling Rose Williams, playwright Tennessee Williams observed his sibling fall into a global of chaos and eventually received treatment that never truly treated her. Rose was diagnosed with schizophrenia, a serious and chronic mental illness that could be treated using a lobotomy. Lobotomies, however , can be dangerous, while the procedure requires puncturing the skull and prodding the mind to disrupt nerves. At some point, at the obtain of her mother Edwina Williams, Went up underwent a lobotomy. To convey his guilt for not “being able to prevent the procedure”, Williams illustrated specific elements of his life great sister’s lifestyle into one of his most famous plays, The Glass Menagerie. The initially clear element is the narrator of the perform, Tom Wingfield and his equal, Tennessee Williams, himself. Not merely are all their names and occupations identical, their brotherly love for older sisters and unwell feelings because of their mothers will be indistinguishable. Rose, the day job of many of Williams’ performs, was developed in to Laura Wingfield. Rose and Laura would be the older siblings of the two Toms and both have an altered sense of reality. After witnessing Rose’s madness and hearing of her operation, it is noticeable that the incident greatly afflicted Tennessee Williams, resulting in The Glass Menagerie (along with many of his other famous works) and the development of Laura’s character. The Glass Menagerie may seem like a play that revolves around an ordinary family, however it appears that the play provides a much deeper value, especially towards the playwright, Tennessee Williams.