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White Soul System Designs – Creating a Computer System Essay

1 – Analysis 1 ) 1 – Introduction Light Soul System Designs can be described as small pc store that designs besides making many of a unique systems and products. It really is situated about Queen Avenue in the centre of Neath.

A large number of people recommend White Soul products and see a store for virtually any product they would like to purchase or repairs all their computers want. Manu persons in Neath use this store because the prices of products are guarantied to be the lowest you will discover, and the fix system, zero fix no fee is very popular. At present just two full-time staff members work there. The owner Mr.

Mandsperson Williams wonderful only employee Mr. Ruben Edwards. Their grocer is open up form 9am – 5pm every weekday. On Saturdays it is wide open from 10am – 6pm and on Sundays it is sealed all day.

Simply having two members of staff working eight several hours a day, half a dozen days per week is very difficult. With increasing numbers of customers Mr. Edwards and Mr. Williams are pressurized to get every types orders and files to be able. Not having some type of computer system means Mr.

Edwards and Mister. Williams have to file all the store clients and stock records physically. This manual system means mistakes are made and customer satisfaction is reduced.

This certainly means a loss in profits. This made Mister. Williams think that like all their computer systems, they should be up to date. He’s currently looking for a new system and approached me to ask my personal opinions. Not knowing the best solution for a store off the best of me I decided to observer the existing system and speak to the Mr.

Williams and a regular customer and get their opinions of how they can like the retail outlet to change. 1 . 2 – Problem Definition The problem with White Spirits current strategy is that it is a manual system with two people of personnel. Every thing is carried out manually also because of this mistakes are made. Every customer data and inventory orders are stored in filing cabinets in logogrammatic order.

Recently due to the manual system various customer data have been misfiled. This is a huge problem since if for example Mrs. Abraham went into the store to buy a new item, one of the associates of staff would look under A to get Abraham inside the filing pantry. If the client record was put into one more file in error a new client record would need to be created. This after that means the customer proving their current address when a notice and proving they personality with a passport or delivery certificate.

Obviously customers may not be incredibly impressed with this and profits can experience. Stock information can also be misplaced. This may lead to the staff members pondering they had ordered new share but to own it never get there. This is problems when a client has particularly requested that item of stock and must find out that it may not always be delivered until the next share delivery.

This kind of again causes customer dissatisfaction and in the long term a loss of prophets. Sometimes, because inventory numbers have been mixed up as a result of bad filing the store gets stock that it didn’t mean or desire to purchase. This is a cut straight out of their prophets, because they have to pay because of it because they ordered this, even if that they didn’t indicate to.

1 ) 3 – Objectives After a few brief chats with Mr. Williams, he explained to me the fact that whole aim of this new system was to keep up with the days. He then gone onto explain how the current system proved helpful.

Adding a Customer If a customer wants to enroll in the store and get special offers and discounts on particular products a credit card applicatoin form must be filled in. To turn into a member more then one sort of identification is required and to validate their talk about a letter or a financial institution statement is required. After the client identity and address can be confirmed a credit card applicatoin form will be filled out and filed.

Info requirements 2. Name Label and forename of the customer * Address Address the consumer is occupying * Postcode Area code of the addresses * Date of birth Date the customer was born * Phone number Number which we can contact the customer 2. Credit Card Number ID issued by the financial institution uniquely directed at the customer Files used Client application form (see appendix A1) Problems Some customers have poor handwriting or just handwriting that the personnel struggle to examine. This may lead to miss filing or perhaps a mistake made with the customer information. Also a wide range of the time consumers are not having any item that may prove their identity and/or not holding a notification to confirm their talk about.

No members may be included with the documents with out initially proving all their identity and address thus they have to returning home to get these items before they will become users of the store. Searching for and viewing a customer For a exceptional in store price cut customers are offered a chance to enroll in the store. Their very own records will be stored in uncial order within a filing cabinet.

If a client wants to employ this discount their particular file must be found. One of many members of staff will look in the filing cabinet pertaining to the customers document. All customers’ records will be stored in alphabetical order inside our files. To consider that client we get their last name and search the file that corresponds with all the first letter of their second name… Electronic. g. Charles Powel We would look in the P record Michael Roberts We would look in the L file Bethan Langdon We would look in the L record When the second name has become found all of us resort to using their very own first labels, we do this because occasionally there will be multiple Powel, Roberts or Langdon.

If there are two similar names inside the files we need to look at every single and meet the address, this is the last resort. Data requirements * Buyer name The purchasers surname and forename 5. Customer addresses The customers residence address Complications A manual filing system is used. Every customer documents are held in a processing cabinet that both associates of personnel have access to. They may be stored in uncial order using the customers’ label.

If a client record was filed within wrong name it would appear shed or it may seem to the staff that that customer has not completed a credit card applicatoin form. Therefore a new contact form would have to become filled in plus the customers’ id would have to end up being proven again. This lessens customer satisfaction and creates challenges for both members of staff. Amending a consumers details If a customer is to move house as well as to change their particular telephone number their particular membership has to be updated. Once their document has been sought for and found the brand new customer details can be added.

Data requirements * Brand Surname and forename of the customer 5. Address Address the customer is definitely occupying * Postcode Place code in the address 5. Date of birth Date the customer was born 2. Phone number Amount on which we can contact the client * Credit Card Number IDENTIFICATION issued by the bank distinctively given to the client Documents utilized Customer application (see appendix A1) Complications Tippex can be used to erase the current particulars before the fresh details are added. This will make the form appearance messy and it may turn into hard to learn. And when created over the tippex or writing may smudge and make the form look a complete clutter.

Again much of the time clients are not holding any item which may prove their very own identity and/or not transporting a notification to confirm their address. No users may be included in the data files with out initially proving all their identity and address thus they have to come back home to get these things before they can become associates of the retail outlet. Deleting a buyer If a buyer wishes to no longer be an associate with our retail store their document may be wiped. Again personality is required in this transaction to happen.

After the consumer is searched for and found it could be discarded. Info requirements 5. Customer identity The customers label and forename * Consumer address The shoppers home talk about Problems Each customer has been deleted from your files we now have no exposure to them. Therefore any warrantees are void and the buyer cannot state money back or perhaps an exchange of item once they have already been deleted from our files. And once again if a client wants his or her file to be discarded they have to prove their identity. Many customers may not carry identification around with them nevertheless this is needed.

Identity is needed to ensure that simply no files are wrongly thrown away. Adding an investment it na When a new stock item is bought and gets to the store, right away a record of the stock is manufactured. Data requirements * Quantity Unique share number given to that item only 5. Title Brand or name of the stock item * Description Information of the actual stock item is * Price Price of the share * Status Status in the stock: Obtainable Unavailable Stopped Documents employed Stock info form (see appendix A1) Problems If a stock info form is filled in it could some moments become a mess due to advertising handwriting or perhaps coffee spots after a lengthy days operate. This may generate it hard to study.

Searching for a stock name When a customer really wants to purchase a selected item of stock the stock record must be identified from the share file to verify if that inventory item can be bought and to make certain it is the appropriate item the consumer wished to obtain. A stock term search is merely performed in the event the customer does not know the stock ID. The title of the stock will be sought for … E. g. GeForce 2mX G would be looked for in the data file Radeon 9800 R will be searched for inside the file WhiteSoul Keyboard Watts would be sought for in the record When the stock name continues to be found we all resort to using the complete stock brand, we do that because in some cases there will be multiple item get back specific notification starting its name.

E. g. [A search for G was made] Benefits GeForce 2mX GeForce four 128mb GeForce 4 64mb GeForce 5 128mb GeForce 2 64mb Data requirements * Inventory name The stocks title * Share number the unique number directed at this item Problems Stock items are filed using their inventory number, not really their name. This is problems because there is simply no name order so every record has to be checked, and refilled whether it is the wrong item. Searching for an investment ID If the customer moved through the difficulties of finding the stock IDENTITY or the associates of staff know the stock ID through the name an investment ID search can be made.

This is much less trouble because the inventory items are registered by their share numbers and each stock amount is unique and so there can be no matches. Data Requirements * Stock Number A unique share number given by a member of staff Challenges Not every 1 knows the stock amount so a name search may have to become. Also if a stock record is out of place then it could possibly be difficult to find it. Amending stock status It is important that each day the stock is usually checked.

As soon as the stock have been checked the stock data must be modified to show climate the inventory is Available, Not available or Stopped. Data requirements * Share Name The stock item * Stock Number The initial stock amount given to this kind of item Complications Tippex is employed to remove the current information before the fresh details will be added. This makes the form seem messy and it may become hard to learn.

And when drafted over the tippex or producing may smudge and associated with form seem a complete mess. Amending inventory details When an item of stock have been entered into data it is sometimes necessary to change the real estate of the share, for example if a sale occurred the share price would be altered or perhaps if a problem was made once first going into the inventory it may be changed.

Data requirements * Amount Unique inventory number given to that item only 2. Title Term or name of the stock item 5. Description Information of what the stock item is 2. Price Cost of the stock * Position Status of the stock: Readily available Unavailable Discontinued Documents applied Stock info form (see appendix A1) Problems Once again tippex is used to get rid of the current information before the new details happen to be added. Can make the form look messy and it may become hard to learn. And when drafted over the tippex or publishing may smudge and make the form look a complete clutter.

Deleting as well as Discontinuation of stock Stock items are never actually deleted from the document, they are just discontinued. This is for warrantee reasons as a buyer may purchase a product that will then become discontinued and if did not have any record on this item ever before being in stock complications would arise when the consumer requests a refund. Data requirements * Stock identity The stock items brand * Inventory number The initial number given to the item Complications Once a share item is now discontinued this really is marked using a D inside the top left corner of the stock record. A member of staff might overlook this kind of on occasion plus they are then left wondering why there is absolutely no stock generally there.

1 . 4 – Period Plan Time To be finished Details 14/12/02 Background & Problem Definition I will talk to both workers to get a standard idea about the store and just a brief look at the current difficulty at hand 02/01/03 Objectives Let me look at the way the current system run, what processes happen to be carried out for members for the company and for stock 19/01/03 Interviews & Questionnaire Let me carryout a job interview with 1 member of staff asking about the current system and what he thinks needs to be changed. I will also create a questionnaire and possess the other staff member and two customers to complete 21/01/03 Interview & Questionnaire synopsis I will in brief make details about the interview and questionnaire and comment on the view outside the window portrayed 26/01/03 Requirements of system Let me look at the requirements of the new system.

I will see if it really is practical and weather I believe it will be successful 30/01/03 Data Flow Layouts Data Circulation diagrams showing the processes in the current, manual system 05/02/03 Program Constraints This will be looking at the hardware and software choices and limitations of the program 12/02/03 Alternate Methods Let me discuss every possible methods to produce a appropriate program intended for the company 13/02/02 Justification I will choose one method of producing a deal for the company and give my reasons for picking this method 19/02/03 Processes Determined The new procedures I wish to present to the system 21/02/03 Data Flow Layouts Data Flow Diagrams in the processes I am going to introduce in the system 29/02/02 System Pecking order Chart A Hierarchy graph showing every one of the system components and mapping away options intended for future development 03/03/03 User Interface I will style the user program so the workers may connect to the program 15/03/03 Implementation To use and make use of, as suitable, the establishments available in the package original to the trouble 25/03/03 Screening The new package must be examined to make sure there are no mistakes with the plan before it really is introduced in the store 29/03/03 Evaluation This is when I evaluate the entire system. I will be looking at detail the things i could have produced better or easier to use and I will write down everything I do think I could turn and the locations where I think I may have gone incorrect 31/03/03 User Documentation I will go into fine detail talking about my own program and how to use it.

It can contain most characters that are able to e joined and what will happen if an incorrect character can be entered. It will also explain what each section of the program can be used for and it will go into fine detail explaining using each section 1 . five – Interview I performed an interview with Mr. Williams to see what changes this individual thought his store needed. Interview Transcript: Myself: Hello there, I would like to thank you initial for giving up your time to aid me with this interview.

Mr. Williams: Not at all. Me personally: Ok, enables get started. At this time you are applying a manual system, may tell me the primary problems that you may have with this product. Mr.

Williams: Well, what isn’t a problem would be a simpler question to resolve. I think the key problem we have is all the handwritten documents. It is not the actual writing of the documents like the sorting, submitting and invoicing. This method of arranging is usually slow and costly as my ecuries are paid on an on an hourly basis basis. Also the quality, because it is handwritten, can be poor.

Wow and there is likewise the fact that lots of documents happen to be lost which is an incredible stupidity because after that all the files have to be checked. Me personally: Have you tried out any other strategies? And if so please specify. Mister.

Williams: Not any, I have attempted no additional method, nevertheless I really believe I need to. Personally: How long perhaps you have thought about changing this system? Mr. Williams: Plus thinking about changing the system for some time now, the reason why I haven’t made very much progress is definitely the lack of period.

We are hurried off each of our feet. Me: What exactly are you wanting out with this new system? Mr. Williams: My primary idea was going to get a fresh filing program. The one now we have is cheap and nasty and it will take too much time to get a document.

And when a measures the end of the long working day with her children shouting that they when you go home and you simply can’t locate the record she demands it is topsy-turvy. Also if the stock deliverer comes to deliver stock, trying to find our stock order form in all the paperwork is a problem. Myself: What benefits do you think a computerised system would provide for you? Mr.

Williams: Very well, firstly it could be much quicker. We could conveniently access all of our file, weather condition it be stock or perhaps member. It would stop all of us muddling up our processing system and spending lots of time trying to sort it out for it to be disarranged the very next time.

We get a lot work in every day to file and just shed track so if we didn’t have to worry regarding the processing because a computer did it for all of us, then wonderful. Myself: Do you possess any tips about protection and access? Mr. Williams: Well, yes.

Even though there may be only two of us at the mechanic some instances the store is left so we can go to the stock place, at this point the consumer would be able to gain access to the documents if we were holding not shielded. Myself: Might you want the whole program safeguarded, or would you allow the clients to browse through certain parts? Mr. Williams: Well, I realize no trouble with the customer having the ability to view stock, but I actually don’t think they should be able to view every other’s specifics or change details on the files. Me: That’s ok.

Is there nearly anything specific that you think you would need? Mister. Williams: Yes, I think to be able to change my personal password on a regular basis would genuinely help,?nternet site am someone to chat. Oh yea and I wonder if it is possible in order to view every stock or perhaps view only current share because almost all stock has to be stored about our data base regardless if it is ceased.

This is due to each of our warrantees, zero stock is usually ever wiped from our stock records to ensure that if a consumer comes in with a product needing a repayment then we are able to know weather conditions we stored that product at any time. Personally: Yes that is certainly possible. Everything else?

Mr. Williams: Well, I’m not sure. I actually don’t genuinely use computer systems much; you’re the qualified I think I will leave it up to you personally.

Myself: Alright I think that is certainly all I want. I’m my apologies I’ve kept you so long, thank you for your. Mr. Williams: Not at all, very good day for you. Interview synopsis Mr.

Williams was not sure about how this individual wanted to boost his shop. However having been quite insistent that this individual needed a new, easier and faster filing system. He’d also like this program free to get his customers to view nevertheless for there to be a password around the member’s section and any modifying parts.

He would also like the ability to alter his security password regularly. Set of questions I designed a questionnaire pertaining to Mr. Edwards and two customers to fill out about what they thought of the store. You should write … V pertaining to Very very good G permanently S pertaining to Satisfactory P for poor Please full all of the following questions… [1] How efficient is the current system? [2] What do you think of the merchandise? [3] Just how well do the staffs take care of customers? [4] How well is the store run? [5] How is definitely service period?

Please complete the remaining concerns with a Black pen… [6] How do you believe the current program may be superior? [7] Make sure you give information about the current program and workers Please compose … V for Extremely good G for good S for Sufficient P to get poor You should complete each of the following questions… [1] Just how efficient is the current program? [2] How do you feel about the products? [3] How very well do the staffs treat buyers? [4] How well may be the store run? [5] Just how is assistance time? You should fill in the questions having a Black pen… [6] How can you think the present system might be improved? [7] Please give details about the latest system and staff members Please write … V to get Very great G for good S intended for Satisfactory G for poor Please finish all of the next questions… [1] How useful is the current system? [2] What do you think of these products? [3] How well do the staffs treat customers? [4] How very well is the shop run? [5] How is service period?

Please fill in the remaining concerns with a Dark-colored pen… [6] How do you believe the current program may be increased? [7] Please give information about the current system and personnel Please write … Sixth is v for Incredibly good G for good T for Adequate P intended for poor Please complete all the following questions… [1] How efficient is a current program? [2] How do you feel about the products? [3] How well do the ecuries treat clients? [4] Just how well is definitely the store manage? [5] How is support time? You should fill in the questions having a Black pen… [6] How can you think the present system could possibly be improved? [7] Please offer details about the current system and staff members 1 . 4 – System Restrictions For the computerised system I will require many items of software and hardware.

This is a brief list of some hardware and software examples I will need. 5. Hardware Needed 1 . Laptop or computer with a great 800mhz processor and a 16mb design card. In least 1 gb hard disk. Cause: This will be used to run the machine and preserve information towards the hard disk for future reference and/or amending.

2 . 15? Colour CRT Monitor Purpose: To be display the chosen program. a few. Printer, probably colour with 600dpi quality of better Purpose: To print forms or other things necessary on the program. * Software Needed 1 ) Operation system – MSDOS or Glass windows Reason: This kind of software is required to run this program 2 . Drivers. For: Printing device, monitor, images card, MSDOS, Sound cards.

Reason: Individuals are required to run the device. Limitations In this new system I have made a decision to use the smallest. This is because when I actually spoke to Mr. Williams he said… “Well were not made from money; an inexpensive system will be much accepted. ” Also this system will need to be set up and running in some day. “We simply close in Sundays and hopefully will probably be enough time to get the system running” This may cause problems as there are many things that may issues.

2 – Design 2 . 1 – Alternate Methods It has been decided that the new system is to become computerised. On the other hand there are many different types of applications that can be used just for this new program.

Off Shelf Package – * Positive aspects 1 . Previously Developed – Saves time as you just have to buy this 2 . Recorded – Incorporates User Paperwork 3. Basic – It truly is designed for most users and so is simple to work with 4. Debugged – Will have been debugged extensively 5. Disadvantages 1 . Not specific – Suitable for the majority, not specific to what we need installment payments on your Updating – Needs updates regularly Fast Application Design and style * Positive aspects 1 . Speedy – Quickly-produced prototypes to enable to buyer to see the suggested system 2 . Low Cost – Is fairly affordable compared to the other choices * Down sides 1 . Speedy – Everything is not planned thoroughly, as a result may get insects in the system 2 . Records – Most Documentation should be made 3. Updating – Will need Insect fixes Pascal * Advantages 1 . Familiar – We am utilized to working with Pascal 2 . Certain – Could be coded being unique a few. Amended – It can conveniently be converted to suit requirements 4. Types of procedures – This utilises types of procedures to perform various tasks 2. Disadvantages 1 . Documentation – All Paperwork needs to be side written installment payments on your Time – May take a very long time to write code 3. Modernizing – No updates will be available 2 . a couple of – Justification I have chosen to use Pascal to create the program needed for the shops new system.

This is generally because We am utilized to coding with it and it lets me make a specified program in a low cost. It can mean needing to write my own customer documentation and may take time fir me to publish the code for this software. A useful feature about Pascal is that it may utilise procedures to perform various tasks. The code I use can be conveniently amended if mistakes are produced and it will carry low costs. 2 . a few – Recognition of types of procedures For the new system Let me have to expose a number fresh of new or perhaps amended techniques.

Processes Adding a Stock that em Every time a new inventory item can be purchased and arrives at a store, immediately track of the stock is made. Data requirements 5. Number One of a kind stock quantity given to that item simply * Subject Name or perhaps title with the stock item * Explanation Description of what the inventory item is * Selling price Price in the stock * Status Status of the stock: Available Unavailable Discontinued Problems Solved After the stock item has been put into the document it can not really be erased, just altered. And because it really is saved to file there are don�t worry about it about the presentation of the writing.

Look at Stock Particulars The Identity of the merchandise may be entered into the program – the program will search the file and discover the inventory details together with the corresponding ID number. Data Requirements * Stock Number A unique share number provided by a member of staff Concerns Solved This kind of displays only the item searched, it will screen all the real estate of the share item and tell the staff member or perhaps customer if the item is Available, Unavailable or Discontinued. Look at All Inventory This will display all the stock on the inventory file weather condition it is obtainable, unavailable or discontinued.

Data Requirements 2. No Data Requirements Complications Solved This allows you to watch all share and inventory details on the pc screen rather than having to seek out old files and take out pages and pages. Perspective Current Stock This will display the current stock on the share file. Limited stock will probably be shown.

Data Requirements * No Info Requirements Complications Solved This allows you to view current stock and stock details on the computer screen instead of having to dig out old documents and search for only share that is available today. Amending share status This permits you to change the inventory status to show weather the stock exists, Unavailable or Discontinued. Info requirements * Password A password should be entered to get access to this section * Stock Number The first stock number given to this kind of item Concerns solved Again this means there is no need to go ranting and crazy through data to find weather condition the share is available or perhaps not as it really is displayed within the screen.

When access has become gained to the modify stock section the stock number is required, after this has been came into you are prompted to modify the status to A, G or U, this will become saved towards the stock file for further reference point. 2 . some – File Structures Intended for the new system, there will be a couple of files in CP3. It will have a Stock record holding all of the stock documents, and a password record allowing you to change the password. I will use the record structure stock=record, with the areas stocknum, title, description, status, price.

Staffnum is the just key field as it gives each item of stock when added a unique number that may be unique to it. If there is a stock amount that has been entered, and the consumer enters similar number one currently there is certainly simply overridden. To prevent this you would need to use Validation, and I will not be using this until the second 12 months of the job. To be able to shop records firstly you need a document on your community hard disk, and second a command inside the program that assigns a particular variable to the record framework, and the data file on the regional disk.

To do this I will the actual following: In the global parameters I employed a changing called – stock_file: record of share; This will have the ability to in that case link the assign collection to the record structure. Once i wanted to write or read stock I merely entered the line assign(stock_file, ‘C: stock. dat’); and reset(stock_file); to open the file. Data stored in the stock document are dependant upon the stocknum given to all of them.

As this is unique there can be no 2 documents in the same place. This then gives us the choice of direct access (instead of looking for the file, heading straight to that using the seek command my spouse and i. e. rather than searching all the map to get a hotel you use a main grid reference which directs one to the position with the hotel. This grid reference is the same as the seek command). To display all of the records within the file you can just use the Whilst not eof command in a cycle to display each stock item and its associated variable we. e. explanation, title, selling price.

When the end user wants to modify, view a stock item they simply gets into the corresponding stocknum into the plan and the system automatically looks for the position in the file and displays the stock record to the display screen. This process is referred to as direct access, discussed above in brackets. To find by the name of a item of inventory, which I will certainly included in the software, the program merely seeks for the start of the data file stock. dat, then scans each item into a variable while not eof. The system in that case proceeds to checking in case the title that has been entered is the same as one in the file in sequential buy. Once it has found that file it writes that to the screen.

Application Automatic Menu IDENTIFICATION: Program. exe File Specifics: File name Stock File External record ID Share. txt File organisation Randomly Access Crucial fields Inventory ID Record length forty-four Used by; Program/module name Program / component ID Explanation Add Stock ST 1 ) 1 Add Stock Brings a stock record to the data file View Share Details ST1. 2 Perspective Stock Specifics Views a certain stock items details Alter Stock Status ST1. several Modify Inventory Status Allows you to modify the status in the stock Watch All Stock ST1. 5 View Almost all Stock Permits all stock to be viewed View Current Stock ST1. 5 View Current Share Allows Current Stock being viewed Standard File Explanation. This record contains all the various data saved inside it.

Fresh records can be added and record preserved on the data file can be altered. Record term General record description Stockrecord Record of all stock specifics Fields. Discipline description Discipline name File format Decimal places Validation check Unique Identifier Stocknum Integer None non-e Stock title Title Thread 20 None Stock Description Description Chain 15 None Stock Selling price Price Integer non-e non-e Stock Status Status Char None non-e Designed by Craig Pickrell Time: 12/05/02 Given the green light by Craig Pickrell Date: 12/25/02 2 . 4 – Screening Strategy To Check the system I will be using a number of methods of testing such as Beta and top-down.

Beta assessment consists of supplying the program to others to test and go through prior to the real product is given out. This method helps place bugs early and can give designers feedback about what different he/she may well include. Top-Down testing contains the skeleton of the full system being tested, with individual segments being substituted by ‘stubs’, which may for example display a communication to say a certain process has been performed.

As individual modules will be completed they may be included in future tests. Let me also use reasonable testing to ensure that for example the correct loop can be executed with the correct period, to make sure the device works properly. This will become an extra evaluation, which will determine small mistakes, which the additional two assessments may not of, picked up in.

Functional screening will also be utilized; this involves building a set of test data that covers all of the inputs and outputs of the program functions.

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