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Revision notes Essay

Hardware is the physical regions of the computer program – the parts that you may touch and see.

A motherboard, a CPU, a keyboard and a monitor are all items of hardware Precisely what is Software? Applications are a collection of guidelines that can be ‘run’ on a pc. These guidelines tell the pc what to do. Application is not a physical thing (but it can of course be placed on a physical medium for example a CD-ROM), it’s bunch of rules. An operating system just like Windows XP or perhaps Mac OPERATING SYSTEM X, applications such as Microsoft Word, as well as the instructions that control a robot are all examples of software program.

The Difference Between Hardware and Software? Computer hardware is the physical components that make up the computer program. Hardware is useless without software to operate on it.

Software is instructions that tell computer hardware what to do. Application is useless unless of course there is equipment to run that on. To get a computer system to be useful it has to consist of both equally hardware and software. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU may be the ‘brain’ of the computer.

It is the device that carries out software program instructions. The Pentium processor chip made by Intel is one of a CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT. CPUs generally plug right into a large plug on the main circuit table (the motherboard) of a pc. They acquire very hot if they are operating thus usually have a big fan mounted on their top to keep all of them cool.

Randomly Access Storage (RAM) Randomly Access Recollection (RAM) is definitely the part of the computer that in the short term stores the instructions which the computer can be running, plus the data it really is processing. RAM is a risky storage device. Because of this if the computer’s power is turned off the contents of RAM vanish and are dropped. RAM, like the CPU, as well plugs in to sockets for the motherboard.

Every time a computer is at use, the RAM is going to contain Read-Only Memory (ROM) Read-Only Memory space (ROM) is employed in most pcs to hold a tiny, special computer software: the ‘boot up’ software. This software runs if the computer is usually switched on or ‘boots up’. The software inspections the computer’s hardware then loads the operating system.

RANGE OF MOTION is nonvolatile storage. Because of this the data it includes is never shed, even if the electric power is switched off. Graphical User Interface (GUI) A GUI is a great interface created around visual (graphical) issues. Windows are regions of the screen used to display data. Icons will be small photographs that are used to symbolize folders, software, etc . Selections are prospect lists of choices the user may select from.

A pointer is definitely an arrow that can be moved around the screen and is utilized to select points. Windows XP is definitely an example of an operating system with a GUI. GUIs are very easy to use because of the visual mother nature of the software – an individual has lots of visual hints as to what points do.

However , to display all of the nice images required with a GUI requires a lot of processing power so quite a strong computer is required. Mainframe Laptop A mainframe computer is known as a large laptop, often used by large businesses, in authorities offices, or perhaps by universities. Mainframe personal computers are typically: Effective – they will process large numbers of data, right away.

Large – they are often stored in special, air-conditioned areas. Multi-user – they let several users (sometimes hundreds) to use the pc at the same time, connected via remote control terminals (screens and keyboards). Laptop Computer A ‘laptop’ computer is a light, compact and portable PERSONAL COMPUTER. Laptops contain a rechargeable power supply so that they can be used even when certainly not plugged in to a mains power source.

They also have a built-in FLATSCREEN monitor. For making them as portable as it can be, most laptop computers try to avoid any sort of cable or wire. Instead of a mouse, a track mat is used. Rather than wired link with a network or printer, ‘wireless’ car radio connections are being used.

MICR Target audience Magnetic Printer ink Character Recognition (MICR) is a technology which allows details coming from bank cheques to be examine into a computer quickly and accurately. The cheque amount and savings account number happen to be printed at the bottom of each bank cheque in special permanent magnetic ink by using a special typeface. An MICR reader may detect these kinds of numbers. OMR Scanner Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is known as a technology that permits the data from a qmc (question multiple choice ) type contact form to be browse quickly and accurately into a computer.

Exceptional OMR varieties are used which may have spaces that could be coloured in (usually by using a pencil). An OMR reader can then detect these represents. Common uses of OMR are multiple-choice exam answer sheets and lottery amount forms. OCR Scanner Optical Character Identification (OCR) is actually a software technology that can convert images of text in an actual text file that may then end up being edited, at the. g. employing word-processing software).

The result is just like if the text message had been typed in by hand. OCR is typically applied after a web page of a book has been scanned. The scanned image of the page can then be analyzed by OCR software program, which looks for recognizable letter shapes and generates a matching text file.

Advanced OCR software may recognize usual handwriting and also printed text message – to describe it in called handwriting recognition. Sensors A messfuhler is a gadget that converts a real-life property (e. g. temperature) into data that a computer can process. Examples of detectors and the houses they find are… A sensor actions a specific house data and sends a signal to the laptop. Usually this is certainly an advertising agency signal so it needs to be changed into digital info for the computer to process. This is done using by simply an Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC).

Sensors are used extensively in monitoring / measuring / data visiting systems, and in addition in pc control devices. SensorWhat it Detects TemperatureTemperature LightLight / dark PressurePressure (e. g. someone located on it) MoistureDampness / drying Water-levelHow full / vacant a pot is MovementMovement nearby ProximityHow close / far something happens to be. Switch or perhaps buttonIf something is touching / pressing this Printers Dot-Matrix Printer A dot-matrix inkjet printer is named following the pattern (a grid or perhaps ‘matrix’) of dots utilized when creating the paper printout. Dot-matrix produce quality is poor, the printers will be noisy, and much better creating systems on the market.

However , the dot-matrix computer printers are still utilized in certain situations: Since the hooks actually strike the daily news, several ‘carbon-copies’ can be published in one go. One of this is flight tickets, which have a lot of duplicate internet pages, all printed in one go. Printed mechanism is incredibly cheap, as well as the inked laces and ribbons last for some time. So , in which cheap, lower-quality printouts will be required, dot-matrix ink jet printers are used.

A good example is store receipts. Ink jet Printer Cheap, high-quality, full-color printing became available during the 1980s due to the development of ink-jet machines. Ink-jet computer printers are very quiet in use.

Given that they have thus few moving parts also, they are cheap to manufacture and thus cheap to acquire. However , the ink is very expensive to buy (this is how the inkjet printer companies generate their income! ) and so the printers can be very expensive to use. Laserlight Printer Laser beam printers are incredibly complex equipment, and thus pricey to buy. Nonetheless they are very low-cost to use.

It is because they create marks on paper using a excellent dust known as toner that is relatively low-cost to buy. Just one toner container will often last for a few, 000-10, 000 pages of printing. The laser printer uses a intricate system, concerning a laser beam, to make the toner stick to the essential parts of the paper. (This system is different to a dot-matrix or ink-jet, and you don’t need to know the main points. )The laserlight and toner system permits very fast printing compared to additional printers (just a few seconds every page). Plotter Plotters produce hard copy in an exceedingly different approach to ink jet printers.

Instead of building up text and images from very small dots, plotters draw within the paper using a pen. The pens will be held in an arm which will lift the pen up or perhaps down, and which can move across the newspaper. The equip and pen create a pulling just like a individual could, although much more effectively and more quickly.

Different coloured pens may be used to produce female line images. Designers and architects typically use plotters since they assist huge pieces of paper, significantly bigger than anything a normal printer could work with… Why Back-up Your Data? In the event you delete a file by accident, your personal computer breaks, your laptop is definitely stolen, or perhaps your business melts away to the ground, having a back-up copy means that you have certainly not lost your precious data. You can recover your lost files and continue operating. Most businesses use computers to store extremely important data (customer records, monetary information, models for products, etc . ) If this kind of data is lost, the business could possibly need to close.

Backing-up business data is essential. How Are Backups Created? Personal back up copies of the data on your hard-drive can be made by…Burning files to a CD-R.

Copying data to an exterior hard-drive. Replicating the data files to another computer system on a network. Businesses back-up essential data by…Making replications of data extremely regularly. Employing large-capacity media such as permanent magnetic tape.

Keeping old replications of back up copies, just in case. Robotizing the system so that nobody does not remember to do it! Keeping backup press off-site (in case of fire or theft) What is a Network? A network is several computers, or perhaps other electronic devices, connected together so that they can exchange data.

For example a network allows pcs to share data, users to message each other, a whole space of pcs to share a single printer, etc . Network connections between personal computers are typically made out of cables (wires). However , connections can be constructed with radio indicators (wireless as well as wi-fi), mobile phone lines (and modems) and even, for long distances, through satellite links. Local Area Network (LAN) An area Area Network is a network confined to one building or perhaps site.

Often a LAN can be described as private network belonging to a great organisation or business. Since LANs are geographically small , they usually work with cables or perhaps low-power the airwaves (wireless) intended for the links. Wireless Neighborhood Network (WLAN) A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN that uses car radio signals (WiFi) to connect personal computers instead of cables. At the middle of the WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK is a wifi switch or router – a small container with a few antennas sticking out the back – used for mailing and receiving info to the computers. (Most notebook computers have a wireless antenna built into the case. )It is much more simple to use wireless cable connections instead of operating long wiring all over a building.

However , WLANs are usually more difficult to produce secure since other people can also try to get connected to the wifi network. So , it is very important to have a good, hard-to-guess password pertaining to the WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK connections. Commonly, the range of a wireless connection is about 50m, but it is dependent how many walls, etc . are in the manner. Wide Location Network (WAN) A Wide Region Network is a network that extends more than a large location. A WAN is often created by signing up for several LANs together, such as when a organization that has offices in different countries links the office LANs jointly.

Because WANs are often geographically spread over significant areas and links among computers happen to be over extended distances, they often use quite exotic links technologies: optical fibre (glass) cables, satellite television radio backlinks, microwave the airwaves links, and so forth Topologies The word topology means ‘arrangement’, so when we discuss the topology of a network, we indicate how the different parts are arranged and linked together. You will find three common network topologies… Bus Network In this kind of network, a long, central wire, the ‘bus’ is used to connect all of the pcs together. Every computer provides a short wire linking it to the ‘bus’. A bus network…Is affordable to install (just one very long cable).

Could be very slow since all pcs share the same cable when ever communicating. Will minimize working when there is a break in the central coach cable. Engagement ring Network From this type of network each computer system is connected to a cycle of wire, the ‘ring’. (If you took a bus network and connected the ends of the shuttle bus cable together, you would have a ring network. )A ring network…Can handle a break in the ring wire since most computers are still joined with each other (it is actually a coach network) Superstar Network In this type of network every pc is connected to a central device. The product passes text messages between computer systems. At the center of any star network you might use a hub (cheap, but slower) or a move (more high-priced, but faster).

A star network…Is quite expensive to install (you have to get lots of cable and the central device)Is very quickly since every computer possesses its own cable which in turn it doesn’t need to reveal. Can manage a cracked cable (only one laptop will be affected). Will stop doing work if the central device destroys. Is the most prevalent network topology. •Any laptop that is to be connected to a network must have a network interface credit card (NIC).

Cables are still utilized in most sites, rather than using only wireless, since they can hold much more info per second, and are safer (less available to hacking). •A hub is a device that connects several computers collectively to make a LOCAL AREA NETWORK. •A change, like a centre, is a device that links a number of computers together to create a LAN. •A router is known as a network unit that attaches together two or more networks. One common use of a router is always to join a home or perhaps business network (LAN) to the Internet (WAN). •A proxy machine is a laptop setup to share a resource, generally an Internet interconnection. A link is a network device that typically backlinks together two different parts of a LAN. Just what Record?

The set of data associated with just one object or person is known as a record. What exactly is Field, and what is a Field Name? You’ll see that your student’s documents contain the same items. These products are called fields.

Each field has a field brand. What is a Key Field as well as Primary Key? It is very important that many record in a database can be individually identified. We need to be sure that when we get a record, our company is accessing the best one.

Analogue to Digital Convertor (ADC) If you would like to attach a great analogue insight device to a digital unit such as a computer, you will need an analogue to digital convertor (ADC). An illustration of this a computer peripheral that requires an ADC is actually a microphone. When you plug a microphone to a computer, you are actually plugging it into an ADC which turns the advertising agency signals through the microphone in digital info that the pc can then process. Digital to Analogue Convertor (DAC) If you want to attach a great analogue end result device into a digital gadget such as a pc, you will need an electronic digital to analogue convertor (DAC).

A good example of a computer peripheral that will need a DAC is a loudspeaker or headsets. When you select a loudspeaker into a computer system, you are in reality plugging that into a DAC, which usually takes digital data from the computer and turns it into analogue indicators which the loudspeaker then changes into appear. The Effect of the Devices in Our Lives Consider the list of equipment above.

At this point try to picture living without them – cleansing your clothes manually ,! Life might be a lot harder. Microprocessor-controlled products mean that we now have more free time to relax and enjoy ourselves instead of doing household chores. We can easily communicate with persons very easily employing computers, cell phones, etc . We are able to become part of online social networks, making friends with people via all over the world. Pcs and Internet connections mean that most of the tasks that involved us leaving the house, for example , shopping for music, clothes or food, can now be done on-line. Online shopping gives all of us more range of products and helps you to save us time.

It is also great from those people who are unable to get from the house easily, such as the aged, or the impaired. Trailing Cables Computer machines are often attached to lots of cords: power, network, etc . If these wires are resting on the floor, they can cause visitors to trip above them. Answer: Place cords inside cable ducts, or perhaps under the floor covering / floor Spilt Beverages or Meals If any liquids are spilt on electrical equipment, these kinds of a s a computer, it might result in injury to the equipment, or an electric distress to the end user. Solution: Maintain drinks and food from computers Beyond capacity Power Electrical sockets Plugging a lot of power cables into a outlet can result in the socket being inundated, overheating, and a fire starting.

Solution: Never plug too many cables to a socket. Always be certain there are fireplace extinguishers nearby Heavy Items Falling Various items of computer system equipment are very heavy: CRT monitors, laser beam printers, etc . Heavy products can cause significant injury in the event that they show up on people.

Solution: Be sure equipment is positioned on strong furniture / cabinets •Use good passwords to shield your end user login bank account •Never disclose your login password to anyone else •Place a fire wall between your computer system and any network •Disconnect from networks when you are not really using them •Encrypt any sensitive information (just in case they get in) Batch Control It is often not desirable to manage a set of info inputs till a certain amount have occurred or a set the passed. And so they are stored until the system comes on the web to method the data in one ‘batch’.

The advantage of batch digesting is that it can be done during less-busy times on my computer or jobs can be queued up in in an attempt to fairly reveal a calculating resource such as a super-computer. The primary disadvantage of group processing may be the time delay between collecting the input data and getting an outcome. It can also be annoying to find out just later a batch run has failed due to a data type problem.

All the best!

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