Talk about the biological approach in psychology. Refer to at least one other approach in your response. (12 marks) The natural approach focuses on both the physical and major aspects which will explain human being behaviour. The causal standard of analysis features physiological details, such as the a result of nerves and hormones in behaviour. In respect to neurological psychologists, actions is controlled by the nervous system, which includes the central nervous system (the head and the vertebral cord) as well as the peripheral worried system (the surrounding nerves), which alone includes the autonomic stressed system that controls programmed processes just like heart rate plus the fight or flight affliction.
Within the central nervous system, neurons exchange their views via sending chemical urges, neurotransmitters, throughout synapses. Biopsychologists believe that these kinds of chemical techniques in the mind directly affect human behavior. Too much or too little of the chemicals may result in over-activity or perhaps under-activity in a variety of parts of the brain; this alters thoughts, thoughts and conduct.
For example , the link has been produced between extreme dopaminergic activity in the brain and the occurrence of schizophrenia.
Pearlson et ‘s (1993) employed Positron Release Tomography (PET) scans and located a substantial increase in D2 receptors in individuals with schizophrenia. Seeman ain al (1993) also employed PET verification, finding 6 times the density of D4 receptors in the minds of schizophrenic individuals. A limitation of such studies is the thought of cause and effect; for instance , it is not clear whether the embrace dopamine pain causes schizophrenia or is a result of the neuroleptic drugs taken. Yet, Pearlson’s study was carried out on individuals who was not exposed to neuroleptic drugs, which usually therefore rules out trigger and result. Neuroimaging research are able to study the structure and working of the human brain, and have the good thing about being non-invasive. Researchers demonstrate how behaviour can be affected by different amounts of sex hormones, for example elevated testosterone continues to be linked to violence and increased risk-taking.
In forensic mindset, Eysenck’s theory of the legal personality suggested that individuals who have offend are high on the extroversion sizing and seek out constant arousal and autonomic arousal using their environment. These individuals are also said to be high on the neuroticism dimensions, with substantial anxiety levels and a great emotionally volatile central nervous system. Their particular nervous system reacts firmly to aversive stimuli and, as a result, they cannot successfully learn socially appropriate behaviours. Eysenck’s theory is criticised for inconsistencies between felony activity and extroversion. Zuckerman (1969) as well argued that environmental stimulation may be sought as a result of apathy, where there is increased excitement levels. Behaviourists likewise emphasise the role from the environment as being a determining factor of behavior in the mother nature versus foster debate. The behaviourist strategy states that individuals are delivered with ‘blank slates’ (tabula rasa), with behaviour being learnt through the process of health and fitness, past encounters and the environment.
With reference to the forensic psychology topic, neo-behaviourists argue that felony behaviour can be learnt by observing and imitating the behaviour of role designs in the environment, e. g. peers, famous people, novel personas. The fake of intense behaviour is most clearly shown in studies conducted by simply Bandura ainsi que al (1963), in which children who seen models performing aggressive serves on a Mendrugo doll afterwards displayed a similar behaviour. Nevertheless this experiment is rebuked for being accessible to demand qualities so the children knew what was expected of these, which confounded the effects (Cumberbatch, 1992). In contrast, the functional degree of analysis focuses on evolutionary and genetic ideas of conduct. In the 1800s, Charles Darwin postulated the evolutionary theory which put forward the idea of endurance and reproduction as a significant feature of behaviour in all species. In what he referred to as the ‘survival of the fittest’, Darwin advised that throughout the process of organic selection pets with particular characteristics, resulting from possessing helpful alleles, will survive.
Yet , those with maladaptive genes cannot adapt to changes in environmental conditions, so can die or perhaps become wiped out. Dowling (1994) stated that process is determined by three guidelines: species variety, interaction plus the spread of any species because of differential hyperbole. Sexual selection is another component of Darwin’s study, which points out the best approaches adopted for passing about genes to offspring. Furthermore, there are complications with Darwin’s theory such as his attempts to generalise pet behaviour towards the way in which individuals interact in their environment. However , he provides presented powerful evidence which is very clinical in its way and methodology. Furthermore, despite Darwin’s major idea of success of an person, Dawkins (1976) suggested the survival of the genes much more important. Schizophrenia twin studies have found a 46% concordance level for monozygotic twins compared to a 14% concordance to get dizygotic baby twins. This large concordance suggests the contribution of genotype to the start schizophrenia, yet the 40% discordancy indicates that environment need to play a role in the development of this disorder. Moreover, localisation of function explains how different parts of the brain have particular functions; for example , the amygdala has been linked to aggression.
A more famous example is the HM case study, through which an operation in the brain, to be able to treat serious epilepsy, led to anterograde stupor. The removal of HM’s hippocampus was therefore related to his daydreaming upon recovery, where he cannot form new memories. Chromosomes are made up of genes which produce a phenotype, prominent or recessive. Abnormalities in chromosomes had been found through biological exploration. For example , Kleinfelter’s syndrome and Turner’s symptoms both comprise an atypical chromosomal style which, in return, produces abnormal behaviour. Man individuals with Kleinfelter’s syndrome have XXY chromosomal pattern, through which they have an extra By chromosome; symptoms include wider hips and reduced virility rates. Turner’s syndrome entails the a shortage of an Times chromosome in females, leading to webbed necks and recollection deficits. Furthermore, criminal research has found an incidence price of zero. 1% XYY pattern in the general populace, with 1 ) 5% XYY in the prison population, indicating that atypical chromosomal patterns cause criminal behaviour.
Yet, further research have failed to confirm this link; Wilkin et al (1976) discovered that only doze men in a large test of 4500 males experienced the extra Y chromosome, with not one as an offender. This kind of theory was consequently refuted. The natural approach as provided a lot of evidence intended for the biological basis of actions, yet it tends to be deterministic, seeing free of charge will since an impression. The humanistic approach, yet , believes we are active ingredients and in a position to choose our behaviour. In addition , the natural approach is reductionist and dehumanising since it reduces almost all behaviour to biological operations, such as family genes and neurochemicals. In contrast, both humanistic and psychodynamic strategies are all natural to some extent. The humanistic way emphasises the whole person and whole very subjective experience, although the psychodynamic approach concentrates on the individual’s life. A way used in most of biological research is the use of laboratory studies.
These are generally high in control, yet lack ecological quality as the findings can not be generalised outdoors such a controlled environment. Similar to the biological approach, the behaviourist way uses scientific methods that happen to be falsifiable and objective. For example , operant health was analyzed by Skinner in a group of experiments with rats who have, when by simply chance, pressed a lever received a pellet of food. Through positive encouragement, they continued to press the handle in order to improve the likelihood of the desired response becoming repeated (receiving food). Yet , the use of animal studies signifies that findings may lack generalisability to man behaviour; even though, Darwin might disagree because human and animal anatomy and actions are seen as similar. Debates that come up in biological research are the concept of determinism. This is displayed in neurological research since free will is often ignored and implications are seen since beyond individual control.
Biological theories happen to be reductionist as they attempt to make clear human conduct by breaking complex operations down into fundamental biological ones. This approach is definitely criticised for focusing only on the nature side in the nature vs . nurture argument; it is thought that behaviour is innate and therefore environmental factors and cognitive mediating processes will be ignored. Furthermore, the natural approach is nomothetic because the features that people have in common happen to be investigated and general laws of actions are used on groups. Empirical studies are mainly objective as they observe tendency rather than centering on subjective experiences, like behaviourists tend to do. Yet also this is a limit as it is argued that biopsychologists dehumanise and neglect the value of activities. Humanistic individuals argue that the subjective knowledge is important even as we are motivated to achieve self-actualisation (Maslow, 1987).
Practical applications of the biological approach had been useful and effective in society. Drug therapy continues to be developed in order to treat health problems and disorders, such as schizophrenia. Anti-psychotic drugs include risperidone, clozapine and chlorpromazine. Atypical drugs, clozapine and risperidone, also take care of negative indications of schizophrenia. Pertaining to depression, medicines include Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) and Tricyclic anti-depressants. Zweipolig disorder can be treated with Lithium Carbonate, which can be toxic however unlike the drugs to get unipolar despression symptoms, they deal with the manic phases with the disorder as well. Where medication therapy may well not work in specific cases, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used; since this involves inducing an electric distress on the person’s brain this kind of therapy is seen as unethical, especially in cases where this treatment is given against a patient’s wishes.
However , it can be still used today and has confirmed to be effective. Medication therapy by itself has been rebuked for just prevention but not curing symptoms. Side effects, such as clozapine cutting down the light blood rely, and the long period it will take for a result can equally result in a reduced adherence for this treatment thus relapse frequently occurs. A problem develops when schizophrenic patients might discontinue use due to the unwanted side effects and number of years to feel any effect. Invasive and noninvasive tactics are used to recognize which head areas may possibly responsible for types of behavior.
Using intrusive techniques, such as lesions and abrasions in brain surgery, biological psychologists include identified Broca’s area which will controls the production of conversation. In contrast, behaviourists tend to employ cognitive-behavioural therapy for ailments and disorders, such as major depression, which has been found to be more effective than medicine (Elkin ou al, 1985). In conclusion, the biological procedure has contributed a huge amount to how we make clear human behavior. There has been much empirical research and the applications have enabled individuals to live normal lives that they acquired previously not been able to. However it much more advisable for taking an interactionist approach while the role of nurture must be regarded as where behavior is concerned.
1Get your custom Essay