Modernization theory concentrates on the main proven fact that the processes that this currently developed countries experienced are essential to obtaining development in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Modernization is thought to occur in five levels according to the Rostow’s stage theory (Rostow 1960), namely; • The traditional society • Take-off preconditions • Take-off • Drive to maturity • High mass consumption era The modernization theory will be based upon the idea of individual progress in accordance to Carneiro (2003) although according to Jones (1985) and McNeill (1990), the concept of human improvement seemed impractical so long as gentleman did not substantially influence the natural environment and as long as there was not any perceptible change in the agrarian economies in one generation to the next.
The developed countries should be serve a significant role in assisting the growing countries to accomplish their level of development and serve as examples. Modernization footprints its origins in the enlightenment era together with the focus that progress in technology would help man overcome the challenges which the nature posed and person would have control over nature. Condorcet (1979) asserted that meaning values of people would transform through monetary development and technological improvement, and therefore connected cultural change to economic creation.
Rostow (1961) argued that the economic efficiency in the countries of low incomes is hampered by way of a social institutions and classic cultural values. In these countries large human population do not allow the individuals to save, as does the possible lack of strong work ethics (Giddens, & Griffiths2006). In line with the Marxist edition of the modernization theory, early industrial culture was seen as exploitation. Growth of the expanding countries could result from the utilization of education and technology.
Share of resources in the expanding countries in an irrational approach was linked to the drawback inside the industrialization of these countries. To ensure a country to develop, it was important to remove the social, institutional and organizational hurdles on its way to modernization and allocate solutions rationally. Modernization is, in respect to Inglehart & Welzel (2005), a process of the development of human wherever development of the economy triggers ethnic changes which can make democracy, male or female equality, and individual autonomy increasingly possible.
In addition to bringing out the main causes of the difficulties existing inside the underdeveloped or perhaps developing countries, the theory may also help countries focus on means and ways of alleviating lower income by emulating the already developed countries. The theory places strength to the fact that development is usually reachable, even by the bad and the growing nations and so can help these to put initiatives to reach the developed universe. The theory clarifies an important stage why the developing countries cannot arise one day and expect to discover themselves produced, but that to achieve development, a particular procedure is followed-building the sub-processes in this procedure is of paramount importance to the countries of low economy.
Dependency theory can be defined as an explanation of the progress the economy of the country’s or state’s creation policy while influenced by outside causes of ethnic, economical, and political factors (Sunkel, 1969). It is a system through which the developmental probability of the subordinate countries happen to be disadvantaged and conditioned by the economic expansion and progress another nation (Dos Santos, 1971). Dependency theory emanated in the 1950s with Raul Prebisch who was the director from the United Nations Monetary Commission intended for Latin America and along with his colleagues was not comfortable with how a developed economic climate in the produced nations failed to lead to growth in the poorer countries.
In accordance to him, the lesser countries released the raw materials to the produced countries yet received the same goods since processed items and the income from the exports was not enough to fund the imports. Prebisch offered a solution for the indegent countries to substitute imports and avoid make use of their international reserves to acquire for imports of made goods. Import substitution was hard to adhere to because of road blocks that were facing the poorer countries.
These kinds of included: the opportunity or ability of controlling their export products of primary products; politics will because concerning desire or likelihood to shifting from making primary merchandise; and the incapability of the tiny internal market segments of the poorer countries which made all of them unable to support the financial systems of level used by the richer countries to keep their prices low. International capitalism has been mentioned as the force leading to dependency marriage According to Gunder (1972), contemporary underdevelopment is as the result of continued relationships-economic or others-between the created and the poorer countries.
Unlike imperialism which usually explains major state development, dependency clarifies underdevelopment-the consequence of imperialism. Addiction theory was created as a result of mix of economic cortege called structuralism, and Marxist sociology. That blamed america intervention and the role of the Latin America in the world economy as failing to achieve expansion and its political authoritarianism due to its position in exporting raw materials in the world economy. America was thought to suffer damage in the conditions of transact by experiencing cheaper exports due to low wage as a result of surplus labor, and more expensive imports since, instead of the efficiency gains staying passed on as lower prices, these people were going to the increasingly monopolistic industrial firms.
Latin America would therefore , due to this free operate, not be able to collect surplus capital required to industrialize. The difference among developed and underdeveloped financial systems was said not only to be on state in the system of creation, or basic difference of stage, nevertheless also to become of situation or function within a sole international financial structure of production and distribution. Low income of the countries was blamed for the richness of some others, not because of any kind of failure (Reid, 2007).
Sociable exclusion of masses resulting from domination from the economy through industrial monopolies yielded to urbanization without any industrialization (Reid, 2007). Being a payment to investments, the foreign investors required that the state self-control those requiring high wages leading to armed service dictatorship. Though their diverging points around the theory, there may be an agreement in issues such as the influence of external forces that designed world use for extend their very own interests overseas which includes overseas aids, marketing communications, multinational organizations and other equipment.
In all the meanings there is a that presently there exist two sets of states; the dominant as well as the dependent, middle and the periphery, the metropolitan and the dish. All of the definitions point to dynamism of the romantic relationship between the dominating and the energetic country because the interactions between them tend to strengthen and intensify the unjust patterns (Ferraro, 1996). Such as the Modernization theory which can be regarded as being developed by each person, the dependency theory is also said to have arisen in three theory formulations.
In respect to Reid (2007) the first primary formulation from the dependency theory focused on formal and institutional relationships just like trade relationships and foreign trade, because factors that were sources to dependency. The other formulation cared for the theory as being a subfield with the refined imperialism theory of the Leninist and the analysis of capitalism by simply Marxist. The third formulation dealt with the two past definitions.
The idea has aided in dropping light since concerns the exploitation existing in the monopolistic world marketplace where countries with strong economies try to dominate over those with weakened economies and create a monopolistic effect of operate. Continued make use of foreign help to the poor nations, that has seen countries being over-reliance to contributor, has left poor countries without having solid alternatives than to pledge commitment to the growing nations. The theory has helped in enumerating the down sides that can be obtained from capitalism especially where capitalism may be the influence towards the establishment of relations between countries.
The idea was criticized as eroding Latin American’s belief in selves, relating to Lawrence Harrison, furthermore to patronizing and paralyzing Latin America. The preparations were assaulted as disregarding or shorting the other causes of underdevelopment such as inner social and cultural factors and were neglect of culture, race, gender and ethnicity. Besides, there were several countries like Asian countries which in turn developed simply on a capitalistic system, and countries like Taiwan and South Korea developed throughout the ideas which were propelled in the development theory (‘Dependency compared to Dependency theory’).
The theory have been blamed because indicating that for the country to have success, it should join others who have succeeded in the exploitation of some, whether or not it does this on a regional level. It has been termed to be a strategy remaining only for small third world countries with no true alternative marketplace, and is zero strategy by any means. The habbit theory operate has been blamed also intended for criticizing advancement in the third world, indicating that such development builds a world different from that at the core (developed world) which there is no approach the producing society could be as that at the core.
Development inside the third world can be best described, because the addiction theory remarks, development of underdeveloped and not while the promoted development. The similarities involving the two theories can summarized as follows: • Both theories concern themselves with the marriage between the bad and the developing with the designed countries. Even though the modernization theory is concerned with the view which the developed countries should serve as an example to the developing or underdeveloped countries for advancement purposes, the dependency theory explains the development of the country with regards to the outside makes or affects which may be due to the activities in the developed countries.
Both consequently deal with and recognize that there exist the relationship between thee two types of nations. • Both equally theories will be consent towards the idea that the developed countries have a superior turn in terms of the economic system, over the developing or the bad world. The in this area would be that the dependency theory seems to suggest an unfair dominance with the developed economies over the expanding or underdeveloped ones, while the modernization theory views the relationship since health-that the developed financial systems can assist the underdeveloped and also the developing kinds • Both theories usually do not give a one-sided explanation since concerns what causes the low economical status inside the developing or perhaps underdeveloped countries.
While the modernization theory offers a critical look at the reason for poor people economic position of the growing or bad nations being result of the problems already existing just like overpopulation and lack of operate ethics, it might be seen as missing the role of the created economies in the resulting economic problems in the third phrase countries. In the explanation for the resulting economic difficulties inside the third world, dependency theory provides leaned unfairly away from the function played by third world countries in bringing on their own economic problems. It is blamed, because seen before, as missing the cultural economic elements that play a role in economic concerns in under developed countries.
It could be seen being unfairly explaining the problem as a result to fermage and external forces. • There are a variety of modifications or perhaps disagreements developing among students in the advancement the two ideas Other dissimilarities • While the modernization theory seems to explain the causes of poor economy in the third world because the result of the activities of the countries themselves for example through poor allocation of resources, and with a view to solving that, the addiction theory may largely be described as a criticism towards the developed countries as being the trigger to the challenges of the economic climate in the under developed. The modernization theory concentrates on the internal reasons for the poor overall economy in the third world, but the dependency theory concentrates on the external influences • The habbit theory is definitely devoid of a clean piece and right strategy of solving the economic problem of the under developed in a no fair market, to the event that it have been described as a ‘no technique at all’.
The modernization theory shows a way of solving the problems of economy influencing the third world such as replacement of imports, advance in use of technology and further education to improve overall economy. References Andre Gunder Frank, “The Advancement Underdevelopment, ” in Wayne D. Cockcroft, Andre Gunder Frank, and Dale Johnson, eds., Dependence and Underdevelopment. Garden Town, New York: Point Books, 72, p. a few. ‘Development poems Dependency theory’ Retrieved Nov 13, 2008 from http://www. revision-notes. co. uk/revision/619. html code Dos Santos Theotonio. “The Structure of Dependence, ” in E. T. Fann and Donald C. Hodges, eds., Psychic readings in U. S. Imperialism. Boston: Porter Sargent, the year of 1971, p. 226 Ferraro Vincent.
Dependency Theory: An Introduction. This summer 1996. Retrieved November 13, 2008 via http://www. mtholyoke. edu/acad/intrel/depend. htm Giddens Anthony & Claire Griffiths. (2006). Sociology.
Polity Hogan Eileen, Thomas Paterson. (2004). Detailing the History of American Foreign Relationships. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press Inglehart Ronald & Christian Welzel. (2005). Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: A persons Development Pattern.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reid Michael jordan. Forgotten Place: The Battle for Latin America’s Heart and soul.
Yale: Yale University Press Sunkel Svaldo. “National Advancement Policy and External Dependence in Latina America, ” The Log of Creation Studies, Volume. 6, number 1, August 1969, l. 23