Excerpt coming from Term Newspaper:
Code of Hammurabi – exodus
A Comparison/contrast Between
the codes of hammurabi THE BOOK OF EXODUS
Between the early next millennium B. C. Electronic. In Mesopotamia (currently Usa, Iraq and formerly Persia), a very essential event occurred which changed the face of civilization, particularly the negotiation of the wonderful river valley bounded by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. It was after that pivotal celebration that writing, art, buildings and fresh political forms were presented in Mesopotamia (“The Property Between the Rivers”) which caused the crisis so strongly linked to Western society.
Following several generations, Semitic nomad shepherds originated in the european desert and adopted much of what was then a Sumerian culture. This generated the construction of great cities in the northern locations, such as Kish, Akkad and Babylon. And through the go up and development of these towns, numerous nobleman emerged that in essence managed every aspect of man society. One of the mightiest was Hammurabi who also established a centralized government that dominated the whole nation. Perhaps the most famous king in Mesopotamian background, Hammurabi is best known for his codification in the confusing, inconsistant and often unwritten laws from the Mesopotamian cities and metropolitan areas. Thus, through the efforts of Hammurabi, buy overcame damage, due to his codes that set the precedent to get peace and prosperity in ancient Mesopotamia.
The requirements themselves had been inscribed in what is right now known as the Grabsäule of Hammurabi which shows the great california king receiving his inspiration to get the unique codes from the goodness Shamash. This confrontation between man and god expresses the true humanization of natural law and, not
surprisingly, also influenced after Middle Eastern cultures, in particular those found in contemporary Israel. Which has a close browsing of the Old Testament, especially in the Book of Exodus, one can possibly easily discern that Moses, the claimed author of Exodus, was highly affected by the unique codes of Hammurabi.
In the Book of Exodus, the laws aren’t listed because found in the codes of Hammurabi, which means that they are imbedded in the text in the form of a narrative. Although like the unique codes of Hammurabi, the laws and regulations in Exodus were apparently handed down to Moses by simply God Him self, much just like Shamash giving the codes to Hammurabi as displayed on the stele. Also, the laws in Exodus had been meant to be covenant laws provided to the people of Israel in order to demonstrate the way they must live as the “children of God. ” Similarly, the codes of Hammurabi were designed as a guide to get the people of Mesopotamia and especially Babylon, i actually. e. through the codes the individuals were advised how to live amongst themselves in a relaxing and organized society. Basically, in Mesopotamia and His home country of israel, the over-riding cultural factor was the notion of law and authority which guaranteed vitality, stability and continuity within just each society.
As a preamble to the rules, Hammurabi declares that “When Marduk dispatched me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, Used to do right and righteousness… And brought about the well-being with the oppressed, inch meaning that Hammurabi had the permission of the gods to convey their unique codes and laws and regulations to the prevalent man. To begin with, codes 20 through twenty concern slaves and their masters – “If anyone receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or perhaps of a freedman, and does not bring it out with the public proclamation
with the major domus, the learn of the house shall be put to death” (Code 16). Likewise, “If he holds the slaves in his residence, and they are caught there, this individual shall be put to death” (Code 19). In the Book of Exodus, it is remarked that “If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve, and the seventh he shall go out cost-free for nothing” (21: 2), but if the slave/servant refuses to go, “Then the master shall bring him unto the judges; this individual shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his learn shall weary his ear canal through with an awl, and he shall provide him forever” (21: 6).
In the requirements, it appears that slaves have minimum rights, individuals that get away from their experts. In Exodus, the slaves/servants have some privileges, for legislation dictates a slave can easily serve his master pertaining to six years in he was bought at public sale; in the 7th, year, they can obviously leave by his own free of charge choice. Nevertheless the biggest big difference is the usage of the loss of life penalty inside the codes. In case the master is caught keeping runaway slaves in his house or fails to tell the “major domus” (being a judge or perhaps magistrate) of the slaves, he will be “put to death. “
In Exodus, if a slave/servant will not leave after his six-year term of service, all of the master can do to him bodily is “bore his hearing through with an awl, ” a reference to a tiny, pointy device often used in woodworking. As a result, the servant is then guaranteed to serve his master forever. Possibly, the use of the awl to pierce the slave’s ear may be a ritual intended to physically mark the slave so that additional will know that he/she is a disobedient person.
In regard to theft and thievery, the codes state “If anyone grab the property from the temple or of the the courtroom, he will be put to loss of life, and also the person who receives the stolen issue from him shall be put to death” (Code 6); “If anyone steal cattle or lamb, or an ass, or maybe a pig or
a goat, if this belong to a god as well as to the court docket, the thief shall shell out thirtyfold; in the event that they belonged to a freed man from the king he shall spend tenfold; if the thief has nothing which to spend he will probably be put to death” (Code 8), and “If anyone is carrying out a thievery and is captured, then he shall be put to death” (Code 22). Also, the Book of Exodus states “If a man shall deliver on to his neighbour money or perhaps stuff to hold, and that be taken out of the mans house; if the thief be seen, let him pay double” (22: 7) and “If the thief be not found, then the grasp of the house shall be brought unto the idol judges to see if he include put his hands on to his neighbor’s good” (22: 8). The closest comparability here is that if the robber is captured, he must generate compensation in money simply by paying thirty times the price of the thieved merchandise (if stolen in the gods or maybe the court) and ten occasions if the products belonged to a free of charge man; in Exodus, the thief need to pay double the cost. But once again, the codes specifically state that in the event the thief simply cannot pay or is trapped red-handed, then he will become “put to death. inches It seems that the laws up to now in Exodus are not because strict because those in the codes, due to the fact that the Babylonians were notorious for their savagery and passion to see accountable persons offer the blade.
In the codes, “If open fire break out within a house, and someone who involves put it away cast his eye upon the property in the owner of the home, and take the property from the master of the home, he should be thrown in that self-same fire (Code 25). Likewise, in the Book of Exodus, “If fire break out, and get in thorns so that the stacks of hammer toe, or the standing corn, and also the field, always be consumed… this individual that kindled the fire shall surely generate restitution” (22: 6). Once again, the Babylonian codes are very strict when it comes to another person’s home; even worse, in the event the person who comes to help wash away the fire abducts the property inside the burning home, he will
be killed. In Exodus, the firestarter only needs to make reimbursement[n]: reparation; indemnity; settlement; compensation; indemnification in the form of funds or merchandise for the corn dropped in the fire. Interestingly, it appears that the Babylonians were extremely consumer-oriented, and therefore they cherished earthly goods, whereas the Israelites acquired more concern for their food items.
As to additional criminal serves, the code of Hammurabi makes it flawlessly clear that “If any person ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot demonstrate it, then simply he that ensnared him shall be offer death” (Code 1) and “if any person bring a great accusation of any crime before the parents, and does not show what he has charged, he shall, if it become a capital crime charged, be put to death” (Code 3). These two laws concern asking someone, for instance a neighbor or maybe a relative, using a crime resistant to the state. And like so many of the other requirements, the person who the accusing (false witness), if he cannot show his claims, will be offer death.
In the Book of Exodus, there is