The Joseph narrative can be found in the book of Genesis chapters 37-50. It really is slightly interrupted “by the storyline of Judah and Tamar (Gen. 38) and by the so-called Benefit of John (Gen. forty-nine: 1-28)” (Skinner, 438).
The storyplot of Paul is seen as exceptional because it features different characteristics than the counterparts in Genesis. Additional writings in Genesis seem to be short, simple incidents, regarding family and tribe affairs. The Joseph narrative, on the other hand, can be lengthy in nature “comprising some three hundred verses” (Barton & Muddiman, 60). Actually Joseph is definitely “second only to Moses in the attention directed at him inside the Torah” (Spring & Shapiro, 260). Several scholars consider the Joseph narrative to become an “originally independent fictional composition, a kind of novella or short function of historical fiction…” that was incorporated into Genesis later (Coogan, 69).
Regardless of the origin of the story, its enjoyable and well crafted story provides a strong basis for fictional analysis. The story itself uses the literary technique of chiasmus in several spots. Foreshadowing also plays a prominent role. Besides the use of these techniques, various themes are established and carried through the narrative.
These types of themes are the use of dreams, and clothes to make the reader aware of particular points in the plot. A significant theme that is developed may be the role of God through the entire story. Each one of these elements which can be pulled through the narrative can give a more deeply insight into the storyline of Joseph. To get a better understanding of the literary intricacy in the Joseph narrative, it is necessary to look at a literary composition that is used within just it. This kind of structure is known as chiasmus.
Chiasmus is defined as the “repetition of ideas in inverted order” (Burton). This concept is used effectively within the story. “The uniqueness of the chiastic structure lies in its focus upon a pivotal topic, about which the other selections of the fictional unit are developed” (Ramey, “Literary Genius”). Although the chiastic structure is used throughout the Frederick narrative, the subsequent example, located toward the start of the story (Gen. 37: 3-11), shows the detail and effectiveness on this structure. At the center of the chiastic structure, in this case, is the brother’s hatred toward Joseph (cfr.
Ramey, “Literary Analysis”). The result is events leading up to this hate, and the following reoccurrence of such events inside the opposite buy. This particular case in point starts with Jacob’s favoritism to get Joseph, then the brothers dislike of Joseph, and then their silence toward Paul, followed by all their reaction to the very fact Joseph had a dream, then Joseph sharing with the dream, which leads for the center from the structure: the brothers hate. These occasions then reoccur, but this time, within an opposite purchase.
Joseph explains to his second dream, accompanied by Jacob’s reaction to the dream, followed by Jacob’s talk with Joseph, followed by the brothers’ envy of Frederick, followed by John thinking thoroughly about the dream (cfr. Ramey, “Literary Analysis”). Even though these incidents are not precisely the same, thez follow the same tips, the same framework. This literary device is an excellent tool intended for seeing the careful type of the Paul narrative, and just how that design and style conveys a single important message. From a literary point of view, another technique utilized in the Frederick narrative may be the foreshadowing of events plus the repetition of similar structures and themes.
As far as foreshadowing, this is shown most conspicuously through Joseph’s dreams. Replication is also used heavily, while evidenced previously in the breakdown of the chiastic structure. It will take the form of varied themes such as continued usage of clothing and dreams. The elements of foreshadowing and replication provide further insight into the literary analysis of the Frederick narrative. First we can look at the need for dreams in the narrative by both a structural standpoint and as a tool for foreshadowing.
It is important to learn that “In antiquity, dreams were thought to be signs via divine forces exposing their very own intent” (Plaut, 388). This view toward dreams makes Joseph’s surprise very useful. Throughout the producing we see that “Dreams perform an important role and touch at uncommon developments” within the story (Plaut, 360). The dreams appear in three different episodes, each episode contains two dreams. This is one particular form of duplication that is used with regard to the dreams (cfr.
Humphreys, 97). The first set of dreams occurs at the beginning of the story. Joseph has a dream and he goes to share that with his siblings: “There we were binding sheaves in the field, when suddenly my own sheaf was up and remained erect; then your sheaves gathered about and bowed low to my sheaf” (Gen. thirty seven: 7).
The brothers are exceedingly disgusted with Joseph and they see his dream as a purposeful make an attempt to mock them and show his power over them (cfr. Levenson, 75). They previously do not like him because he is the favorite son, however they hate him even more after his wish. The second dream which takes place within this show is similar to the first. This time around Joseph describes the sun, moon, and 11 stars bowing down to him.
Joseph’s siblings and father take exclusion to his dream. By a foreshadowing perspective, in your first set of dreams has stunning similarities about what will happen later in the narrative. In the initially dream, Frederick talks about cropping grain and how the brother’s sheaves bowed down to his sheaf. Whenever we analyze this kind of dream we come across that it is similar to very closely what goes on later inside the narrative regarding the famine.
A famine gets control the property; this is displayed by the wheat or grain in Joseph’s initial desire. Furthermore, the brother’s sheaves bow right down to Joseph’s sheaf which presents when Paul is the master of Egypt and the siblings come bow down to him for nourishment (cfr. Levenson, 75). This development after in the account proves that Joseph has a special god-given power to predict the future through dreams. The brothers must feel unreasonable for questioning Joseph.
The second dream when the sun, moon, and celebrities bow to him retains some predictive power too. When the famine strikes, it can be described as overpowering the world: “The famine, however , spread over depends upon. So all of the world reached Joseph in Egypt to acquire rations…” (Gen. 41: 56-57). This generally seems to coincide for least partially with the claim that the sun, moon, and superstars bowed to him.
In addition , Joseph’s father initially was very upset with his son’s second wish saying, “What is this fantasy you have imagined? Are all of us to arrive, I and your mother plus your brothers, and bow low to you towards the ground? ” (Gen. 37: 10). Although the father is usually upset at that time, this appears to come true to a extent. John ends up shifting his whole family to Goshen in Egypt wherever they can survive the starvation through the meals provided by Paul.
The second pair of dreams occurs when Paul is in jail with the cupbearer and the baker of the King of Egypt. They the two had a desire on the same nighttime and had been frustrated that they could not determine the meaning. Paul saw that they were raise red flags to and consented to interpret the dreams to them.
The cupbearer told his dream to Paul saying, “In my wish, there was a vine before me. On the vine had been three divisions. It had scarcely budded, once out came up its flowers and its clusters ripened in grapes. Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes, constrained them into Pharaoh’s cup, and put the cup in Pharaoh’s hand. ” (Gen. forty five: 9-11).
Joseph’s interpretation would be that the three limbs represent the cupbearer’s relieve from penitentiary in 3 days. He may then resume serving the Pharaoh. Seeing this good interpretation the baker quickly shares his dream with Joseph. “In my desire, similarly, there are three openwork baskets on my head. Inside the uppermost basket were a myriad of food for Pharaoh that the baker prepares; and the parrots were ingesting it out of the basket previously mentioned my head. ” (Gen. forty: 16-17). Paul interprets this kind of as that means the baker will be impaled in three days as well as the birds will pick in his drag.
When the third day happens, Joseph is definitely again proper with his desire interpretation. The cupbearer can be returned to his function and the baker is wiped out. This is an additional example of foreshadowing. An interesting component to this set of dreams is definitely the baker’s try to design his dream that way of the cupbearer’s. The baker believes that if this individual structures that the same as the cupbearer he too will be able to receive released in three days.
The actual baker does not understand is that Joseph draws his interpretations through God (cfr. Levenson, 80). This kind of really pushes home the point that Paul is not only interpreting dreams, but that under God’s will, these dreams are coming true. Structurally, the two dreams mirror each other with their mention of three days and nights and Pharaoh’s decision around the third working day.
This looked like there was the case with all the first set of dreams too. Both were based on Joseph’s superior electric power. There is also a reference to food once again. This time the baker is carrying the foodstuff and he can killed.
This might be another mention of the the famine that is to come. The 3rd and last set of dreams involves Pharaoh himself. Exactly like previously, there are two dreams for Joseph to understand.
Pharaoh dreams that he can standing by the Nile Lake when seven strong and healthy bovine emerge. These kinds of cows will be then enjoyed by seven weak and ugly cows. Pharaoh’s second dream is extremely similar in structure for the first.
He dreams that seven the ears of healthful grain sprout but then are swallowed up by several more the ears of poor grain. Frederick is presented of prison in order to interpret for Pharaoh. Joseph informs him that his dreams mean the same thing. The seven healthful cows plus the seven healthy and balanced ears of grain stand for seven many years of plentiful food.
The several ugly cows and the eight dried up the ears of feed represent eight years of famine that will follow the plentiful period. Joseph then recommends for the Pharaoh that during the eight years of abundance they retail store food in order that it will be available if the famine hits. It is this very recommendation that benefits Joseph the title of second-in-command to Pharaoh. Of course , in the same way Joseph predicts, there are eight years of plethora followed by seven years of starvation. The series of dreams offered throughout the Joseph narrative are being used as a literary tool to foreshadow what to you suppose will happen in the future.
Each group of dreams carries an important part inside the overall plan of the account. The structure of the dreams is well thought out. Each desire is matched within a pair depending on similarities. In addition there are similarities between pairs. For example , each pair mentions foodstuff which may forecast the ultimate famine (cfr.
Levenson, 75). Also, each comes accurate just as Joseph has explained it will. As discussed, dreams are not simply a foreshadowing system; they are also used in a repeated literary way to further the storyline of Joseph.
Dreams, however , are not the only repetition inside the Joseph story. There is also a replication in the utilization of clothing so as to mark important events in the story (cfr. Humphreys, 96). The importance of clothing is built obvious through the very beginning.
It can be clear that Joseph can be Jacob’s preferred son. This is certainly represented through clothing: “Now Israel liked Joseph best of all his daughters, for he was the child of his retirement years; and he previously made him an ornamented tunic” (Gen. 37: 3). Later on, the brothers grow angry with Joseph due to his position as the favorite son. That they sell him into slavery, and again this event is usually marked by using clothing.
The boys have Joseph’s robe and discolor it with blood to create Jacob think that Joseph can be dead. The repetition of the use of clothes continues upon numerous occasions. For example , even though Pharaoh cell phone calls Joseph out of penitentiary to translate his dreams, the author says that Joseph “had his hair cut and changed his clothes” before appearing just before Pharaoh (Gen. 41: 14).
Perhaps one of the most significant instances of the author’s use of clothing is when ever Joseph becomes second-in-command to Pharaoh inside the land of Egypt. The passage can be as follows: “And removing his signet engagement ring from his hand, Pharaoh put it on Joseph’s hand; and he had him dressed in dresses of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck” (Gen. 41: 42).
In this article the clothing acts as another standard in the tale and that symbolizes Joseph’s rise to power. One last example of the application of clothing in the narrative is usually one of irony. It arises after Joseph has revealed himself to his friends as our creator of Egypt. He tells the friends to go to Canaan and bring Jacob and all his relatives back to Egypt with these people.
This will guarantee that everybody will be protected from the starvation. As Paul sends the brothers on the way, this individual gives each of them a change of clothing. This is ironic mainly because, previously, Paul was the a single being stripped of his tunic by the brothers. Within a reversal of roles, Joseph has the power and he is the one distributing the clothing (cfr. Coogan, 70).
This is a refined literary aspect, but it really helps bring the story to life. Once reading the Joseph narrative, the theme of God’s involvement seems to create itself as the most important. This is simply not surprising since, after all, the Joseph story is included available of Genesis and therefore has great faith based significance.
Before developing this kind of theme, comprehending the documentary hypothesis can help rank the story of Joseph and make this easier to understand. The documented hypothesis offered by Julius Wellhausen, a German mentor, is used to differentiate between different types of writings or papers in the Pentateuch. It separates the Pentateuch into 4 sources: the Yahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomic, and Priestly (cfr.
Coogan, 42). The Paul narrative is known as by many to be the result of the Elohist source. This supply is known due to its use of the divine title “God” (elohim). The Elohist source reveals God as someone that exists but just watches over day to day affairs.
God will not interact immediately with human beings in this source. Instead, Our god reveals him self “indirectly through dreams, keen messengers, and prophets” (Coogan, 44). In the Joseph narrative, the main persona, Joseph, has the capacity to interpret dreams. He acknowledges this as a gift by God. This is certainly a perfect example of the Elohist source because God can be making him self known through dreams.
The Elohist resource is also praised for being used in writings that mention the northern kingdom of Israel. In the Frederick narrative there is certainly mention of “Shechem, the initial capital with the northern kingdom of Israel” (Coogan, 63). In Genesis 37: 13 Joseph is sent simply by his dad Jacob to Shechem to check on his siblings who were monitoring Jacob’s head. The characteristics with the Elohist resource that are within the Joseph narrative provide a good starting point pertaining to analyzing the narrative over a more detailed level.
Throughout the Paul narrative there are examples of God’s presence with regard to Joseph. Element of this marriage with The almighty is displayed by the author’s wording in the narrative, and part is definitely shown throughout the actual events that occur in the story. Through Joseph, Our god could make him self known. Joseph acted while an agent of God.
This really is contrasted in the narrative by fact that Joseph’s brothers seemed to have small awareness of God’s presence and how he influenced their destiny. The author shows Joseph because someone who is consistently dedicated to God. On the other hand, Joseph’s brothers happen to be portrayed while ignorant towards the way of The almighty.
The narrative seems to be a method to open the brother’s sight to a better understanding of their particular faith. That reinforces the simple fact that Our god has an impact on their day-to-day lives. In the following examples, the author displays God’s part in Joseph’s life vs . that of his brothers. Especially, the degree where the characters esteem God’s common sense, the recommendation of Goodness in daily activities, and the character’s successes and failures in terms of God. Paul shows his respect intended for God’s judgment on a number of occasions.
When ever in Egypt, Joseph is definitely bought by simply Potiphar, a courtier of Pharaoh which is allowed to be in his home. Potiphar’s wife continually tempts Joseph to rest with her. Joseph acknowledges God’s view when he says: “How after that could I try this most wicked thing, and sin just before God? ” (Gen. 39: 9). Joseph does not simply state that sleeping with Potiphar’s wife would be immoral; this individual holds concern for what Goodness would think.
Another case occurs the moment Joseph meets with his siblings in Egypt for the first time. This individual pretends he does not understand them and treats all of them as spies. Joseph shows the brothers an order to come back to Egypt using their youngest close friend, Benjamin, in order to prove they are truthful persons.
He proclaims, “Do this kind of and you shall live, to get I am a God-fearing man” (Gen. 42: 18). In contrast, once Joseph’s siblings become envious and conspire to eliminate Joseph, that they ask certainly not how Our god will evaluate them, but rather how they can take advantage of the act. Especially, Judah factors with his siblings, “What can we gain simply by killing our brother and covering up his blood?
Come, allow us to sell him to the Ishmaelites…” (Gen. thirty seven: 26-27). Even though deciding to market their buddy into captivity would not be looked at an take action of amazing advantages, it is certainly much better than murder. The brother’s decision seems to be produced based on what benefits all of them the most and no talk about whatsoever of wanting to fulfill God or perhaps fearing God’s judgment. Through Joseph’s activities in the narrative we can see his faith in God and just how God has a affect in the behavior. For instance, Joseph qualities his capability to interpret dreams as the job of Our god.
When Joseph is locked up with two of Pharaoh’s servants, the cupbearer and the baker, he presents assistance in interpreting their very own dreams. Rather than take credit pertaining to the ability to be familiar with dreams’ invisible messages, Paul makes very clear that the electrical power is certainly not human, yet divine, “Surely God can easily interpret! Tell me your dreams” (Gen. 45: 8).
While he can easily take the credit pertaining to his expertise, Joseph rather views himself as a motor vehicle for God’s will. Likewise, Pharaoh discovers of Joseph’s ability and asks him to translate a dream that his magic could not. Paul agrees nevertheless states, “Not I! Goodness will see to Pharaoh’s welfare” (Gen. 41: 16). Joseph goes on to translate the fantasy, but it is easy to see that Joseph is definitely putting God before him.
Pharaoh will be able to recognize the workings from the divine within just Joseph when he exclaims, “Could we find another like him, a man in whom is the spirit of God? As God has turned all this recognized to you, there exists none therefore discerning and wise since you” (Gen. 41: 38-39).
Pharaoh uses a liking to Joseph as he sees the fact that spirit of God is at him. While Joseph and even the Pharaoh consistently understand God, the brothers don’t seem to recognize him. The moment Joseph contains a dream that he will regulation over his brothers they become annoyed with him (Gen. 37: 8).
Instead of improving his thoughts, the brothers mock Joseph as the “dreamer” and make ideas to get rid of him (Gen. 37: 19). Later in the narrative when the brothers do make the acknowledgement that God could possibly be disciplining all of them for their previously treatment of Frederick (Gen 40: 21); the emphasis is usually on the punishment being instilled by Joseph.
They do not reference point any matter over the prepare or benefits of God. Furthermore, in addition to Joseph’s idea that his own activities are those of God, the chinese language of the creator reflects the concept God is by Joseph’s part. In particular, the narrator reveals God’s occurrence in Joseph’s life through his many hardships. For instance , when Paul is sold to Potiphar, “The Lord was with Joseph” (Gen.
39: 2), and again once Joseph can be imprisoned, “The Lord was with him” (Gen. 28: 33). In this manner, the author demonstrates although Frederick is long lasting adversity, Goodness is still in his presence. When God stands by Joseph’s side, the narrator excludes similar dialect when explaining the friends. For example , the narrator would not mention exactly where God is usually when the starvation causes Joseph’s family to travel hungry.
As seen, the brothers will not seem to live under the view of The almighty or give God credit for the happenings into their lives. In this article, in times of hardship they are not helped by simply God neither do that they ask for God’s help. Each goes to Frederick in Egypt (although they can be not aware that it must be Joseph in the time) to keep from starving. Interestingly, while the service provider of nutriment, this is just one more way in which Paul is a real estate agent of The almighty. Another distinction between Joseph and his friends can be found in their particular respective successes and failures.
The author attributes Joseph’s success to God’s presence in the life. “The Lord was with Joseph and having been a successful man” (Genesis 39: 2). Frederick does experience tough times, although he usually seems to go above them. Joseph’s hard times commence when he is sold into slavery. He quickly overcomes this as his master, Potiphar, makes him the head of household.
This kind of occurred because his grasp “saw the fact that LORD was with him and that the MASTER lent accomplishment to everything he undertook” (Gen. 39: 3). Joseph’s suffering continues as he is usually accused of rape and set in prison. Nevertheless, by way of God’s occurrence, Joseph again earns responsibility and is place in charge of prison obligations. Joseph’s most crucial achievement is usually when he turns into “lord of Egypt, ” second-in-command only to Pharaoh, and distributes meals to keep the world from misery (Gen.
45: 9). Contrary to their sibling, Joseph’s bros seem to be affected by misfortune. As i have said before, they will experience crisis during the famine and have to resort to Paul for meals.
They also encounter difficulty in gratifying their daddy Jacob. When ever Jacob requests his kids to go receive food, they come back together with the food, but in reality come back with numerous concerns. They realize that the money these were to use for the food continues to be returned to their sacks, making them look like thieves.
They also have not so good news to share with John in regards to Benjamin. Joseph needs for Benjamin to include the friends on the subsequent journey. Jacob is very upset because he anxieties that something will happen to Benjamin, his most precious son.
John believes that his old favorite son, Joseph, can be dead and therefore regards Benjamin highly. The between the success of Paul and the inability of the friends is God’s presence. Although Joseph can trust God’s plan to prevail and give purpose to his life, the brothers are not yet aware of God’s function.
The concept of the Joseph’s knowledge versus the lack of knowledge of the brothers ties all of the previously mentioned factors together. As a result the ultimate motif becomes the ability to see The almighty versus blindness to when he talks to you (cfr. Humphreys, 109).
Although author posts this motif throughout the complete narrative, he does not reveal the key to the puzzle before the end. We see the actions of The almighty in and through Joseph’s character plus the lack of divine recognition from your characters from the brothers. However , through the last three moments, the narrator reveals the importance of God’s role inside the Joseph tale. In these views: Judah constitutes a plea on behalf of the friends to keep Benjamin from slavery, Joseph discloses his accurate identity, and Jacob’s loss of life reveals the brother’s continued doubt that Joseph features forgiven these people. In the 1st scene, Judah begs Frederick to have mercy on Dernier-ne, who is being accused of stealing Pharaoh’s silver goblet.
In reality, Paul placed the goblet in the bag like a test (cfr. Levenson, 88). Judah says, “Please my lord, let your servant appeal to my lord, , nor be impatient with your stalwart, you who are the the same of Pharaoh” (Gen. forty-four: 18).
Judah has a whole lot at stake due to his promise to his father that he would take Benjamin back: “I me will be surety for him; you may maintain me responsible: if I tend not to bring him back to you make him ahead of you, I actually shall stand guilty before you forever” (Gen. 43: 9). Judah tells Joseph the story of Jacob’s reluctance to part with his most youthful son. He notes that enslaving Benjamin would certainly trigger the fatality of his father because of grief.
Unfamiliar to them, the siblings are placed in an interesting scenario as they try to satisfy their father and the brother. They are really not aware that Joseph can be acting through God to reconcile their sins and bring the family to oneness. In the close of his speech, Judah asks in which to stay place of Benjamin: “Therefore, you should let your stalwart remain being a slave to my lord instead of the boy, and let the young man go back together with his brothers” (Gen. 44: 33).
This demonstrates that maybe the brothers have finally learned their very own lesson which was what Frederick had designed all along. Joseph gets emotional while using situation and reveals his true identity. Joseph not merely reveals that he is still alive, although he likewise opens his brother’s eyes to the fact that The almighty has been working through him. “Now do not be fixer-upper or reproach yourselves since you distributed me hither; it was just to save life that God dispatched me ahead of you.
It is now two years that there has been famine in the area, and there are even now five years to come in which generally there shall be not any yield coming from tilling. Goodness has dispatched me before you to assure your survival on earth, and to save your lives in extraordinary deliverance. So it has not been you who also sent me personally here, yet God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh, lord coming from all his home, and ruler over the whole land of Egypt. ” (Gen. forty-five: 5-8) Paul makes obvious that God is the professional: “God sent me, ” “God made me” (Gen. 45: 7-8).
Rather than the siblings being in charge of Joseph’s hardship, he can make it clear that God deserves the responsibility for the activities that now result in family unanimity and success, not death. The idea that The almighty has a goal for exactly what happens is usually brought to the forefront. “Finally the brothers come to be aware of what Paul and the visitor know, and all come to be aware of through Joseph’s recognition which the tug and pull on this family’s story must be understood within a greater divine design, and the style is one that seeks aid life” (Humphreys, 125). The thought of God’s occurrence in the story is continued in the final picture.
When Jacob dies, the brothers dread that Joseph’s compassion is usually untrue and he will still seek vengeance upon these people: “What in the event that Joseph nonetheless bears a grudge against us and pays all of us back in total for all the incorrect that we do to him? ” (Gen. 50: 15). They bow down facing Joseph and say that they are really prepared to always be Joseph’s slaves. Joseph begins to cry and once again reiterates that it must be not himself, but The almighty, who is the master of their fate: “Do not be afraid! Am I in the place of God?
While you intended to carry out harm to me, God planned it forever, in order to preserve a numerous persons, as he has been doing today. And so do no dread; I me personally will provide for you personally and your very little ones” (Gen. 50: 19-21).
As a whole, these final displays help provide for a close the role of God’s participation in the narrative. This is demonstrated through the contrasting themes of knowledge and lack of knowledge by Joseph and his friends respectively. Joseph has The almighty with him and is conscious of God, while the brothers shortage this information. In the end, the brothers are manufactured aware of the greater involvement in their lives referred to as God. The Joseph story within Genesis is one among great importance.
It isolates itself from other Genesis blood pressure measurements because of its size and quality. The quality of the writing makes it a great program for fictional analysis. The chiasmus fictional structure was employed in order to see the details in the composing and how continual ideas had been used.
Common literary equipment were also used including foreshadowing and repeating themes. The themes included the use of dreams, clothing, and the final overlying theme of God’s involvement. This kind of theme was looked at throughout the eyes of Joseph and then his brothers.
Thanks to Frederick, the friends, who are at first blind to The almighty, seem to appreciate God’s involvement in their lives by the end in the narrative. Recommendations Barton, David, and Ruben Muddiman. “The Story of Joseph. ” The Oxford Bible Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Burton, Gideon U. “Chiasmus. ” Silva Rhetoricae.
Brigham Young University, twenty-two Nov 2009.. Coogan, Michael. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Humphreys, W. Lee.
Joseph great Family: A Literary Examine. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1988. Levenson, Jon D. “Genesis. ” The Judaism Study Holy bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Plaut, W. Gunther.
The Torah: A Modern Commentary. Vol. 1 ) New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1974. 361-481. Ramey, William D. “Literary Examination of Genesis 37: 2b-11. ” At first. July 97. 22 Nov 2009..
Ramey, William M. “The Fictional Genius of the Joseph Story. ” Initially. 22 November 2009.. Skinner, John. A major and Exegetical Commentary on Genesis. 2nd ed.
Nyc: T. & T. Clark simon, Edinburgh, 1969. 438-540. Early spring, Chaim, and Jay Shapiro. “The Enigma of the Paul Narrative. ” Jewish Bible Quarterly thirty five. 4 (2007): 260-68. EBSCO Host. twenty-two Nov.