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Cultural and religious conflict in nigeria essay

Quite simply, Nigeria is known as a plural contemporary society and heterogeneous in practically all the facet of life. The custom and tradition of Nigerians is so diverse for the extent that Nigeria as a country is actually confronted with the situation of religion and ethnicity towards their politics stability. The foundation and great ethnic discord (societal battles and violence) can be followed from timeless (internal) state rivalry to external (physical). And its root cause is not very far from electric power competition and decision making more than economic solutions and other important human aspect, like placement.

The implementation method has usually involved multiple or two people. In general idea, the author on this work remnants conflict back in the first and early on Patriarchal of human history and ever since then, there has been an increase (in several dimensions) of Conflict when confronted with human globe. Some are personal (internal) discord, family, community, and group, intellectual, state, national and international in nature, to note but few.

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In conforming to the idea, Badawi (2006) in the statement named “World Apart stated therefore, “indeed the very best discord today is among the rejeton of Abraham.

These are the people of the publication, the supporters of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, who had in fact distributed a common from the religious beliefs of Abraham. In losing more mild in the above statement, Badawi statement moves far over and above religion, alternatively, he was looking up one of the earliest source of issue which Badawi mentioned the off-springs from the said Abraham. Even before Abraham, there had been conflict, so it will be as aged as history down to the Abrahamic period, to ancient kingdoms, Dukes, and Nobleman. In about 88 N. C., Full Mithriadates MIRE of Pontus invaded Roman territory in Asian Small.

He advised Asian debtors to eliminate their Both roman creditors. Very happy to reduce all their credit card bills, the Asians massacred 80, 500 Romans. Ethno-political conflicts have greatly molded our present world as well as have its structural happening, (William Easterly, 2001). To get instances, the conflict we have now call Judio and Palestinian war, has become an ever-lengthening sort. The Assyrian, Babylonian war, simply by King Nebuchadnezzar of the suspending Garden of all time, the Persia war, Alexander the Great (the Macedonian upset man in history), the German battle of Adolf’s.

Hitler, the Roman battles, narrowing all of these down, all of us came to the horn of African place which are most often an outbreak field of conflicts of diverse types till day. The giant-lion of African continent, just like the origin of conflict has been said to have mentioned very old in human history, even so regarding Nigeria, which may be traced for the colonial length of history. Conflict takes lengths and forms with varied reasons and purposes.

Most of the conflicts takes time ahead of their escalation and at this kind of, could have been changed right at their particular respective early stages. The history of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts in Nigeria is also followed back to the colonial transgressions that compelled the cultural groups of the northern and southern zone to become a great entity called Nigeria in 1914. In the case of Nigeria scenario, disturbing history of colonialism, this kind of generated hatred and issue among different ethnic groups. The task of addressing this kind of seed of conflict rooted by the Uk has been a complicated one.

After weakening the former diverse kingdoms, Emperors, and so forth now called Nigeria and reordering the groups’ governmental policies, the impérialiste powers failed in land building and providing intended for the someones basic needs. Hence, unemployment, poverty enhance, and because of these, conflict over hard to find resources ensue. The Southern and Northern protectorates were also being blend into a region. Thereafter, the merging of different colonies into one country called Nigeria was forcefully refrained from the householder’s consent. It was a major seeds of conflict that is still troubling Nigeria today.

Here is info focused on the historical happenings of cultural conflicts in within Nigeria societies, the cause of the conflicts and perhaps, the government actions towards ethnic issue in the country. In conclusion, this newspaper will explore into decision-making (by the elites and others in authority) process provides contributed hugely in producing the marque of discord in the explained state. The Nigerian political situation has witnessed more breaking of heads, than counting these people. In fact , even when it has been convenient for mind to be measured, the outcome has long been the breaking of heads instead.

Turmoil in Nigeria is so powerful because of insufficient democratic behaviour. The head individuals in the democratic context signifies citizenship. Thus when brain are cracked in the Nigerian political community, the issue in regards to broken brain is citizenship. If conflict in Nigeria means the absence of democratic behaviour, that follows, consequently , that discord in Nigeria is interwoven with the a shortage of democratic governance. Gurr (2000): has also shown that the incidence of conflicts at the global level decreased in recent years while using deepening of democratisation.

Nation-states where disputes persist happen to be those where what acquires is the democratisation of disempowerment (Ake 1996). Beyond the veneer of elections, the state remains ambushed, privatised, repressive and unpopular. The people who had been tantalised by prospect of the democratic trend that would terminate decades of alienation and pauperisation have been completely short changed and provided a ‘choice less democracy’ (Mkandawire 1999). The ‘credibility gap’ which in turn fostered the De-linkage of the people in the state, and ignited cultural forces to struggle for democracy, can be not being bridged (Rothchild 95: 58).

Photography equipment peoples out of very clear rational measurements sans atavistic attachments have got turned all their backs for the state ‘and given their loyalty to sub-national interpersonal formations like the community, the sub nationality or ethnic groups’ (Ake 2000: 114). It is against this backdrop which the proliferation and exacerbation of violent ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria inside the post-transition period can be valued. This article switches into an conditional framework that holds the interface among ethnicity and democratisation is found in absence of successful citizenship and good governance in post-transition societies.

In the circumstance that democracy will not go beyond the conduct of multiparty polls to include improvement in the quality lifestyle of the people, there is frustration, and people who already feel alienated from the point out are susceptible and likely to become mobilised around counter-elites whom exploit extant popular hysteria from the state by whipping up sectarian sentiments. This has been the situation in Nigeria and several multi-ethnic states of Africa (Osaghae 1994).

Even though the foregoing theoretical discussion features focused on ethnicity, the term ethno-religious is used because a few of the recent violent conflicts to get examined were triggered simply by religious concerns. The significance of religion is likewise underlined by the fact that in Nigeria ethnic boundaries often coincide with religion, with the exception of the Yoruba ethnic group (Ibrahim 1999). The Nigeria state was amalgamated in the year 1914 by simply lord lugard.

The various physical areas or perhaps territory that has been amalgamated to create Nigeria by colonialist consists of various cleavages, clans, neighborhoods even there are kingdoms and chiefdoms with diverse culture, language, faith, norms values, customs and political structures and so forth

The focus of the research monogram is to examine the part of religion and ethnicity in Nigeria nascent democracy. In Nigeria specifically, religion plays a very essential and powerfulk role inside the society which has manifested alone as a strong force in the political development of the Nigerian state from pre-independence to post-independence. Barely can the Nigerian state be talked about regardless of religion (Kukah, 1994; Falola, 1990; Kenny, 2006; Intercontinental IDEA, 2k; Suberu, 2009).

However , faith in Nigeria, at diverse levels, is mostly mentioned in negative terms. Or rather, historical events related to religion tilts more towards its unfavorable than their positive contribution to the Nigerian state. The Jihad, the civil war propaganda, the Sharia regulation controversy, the tensions provoked by the Nigerian accession towards the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) plus the incessant spiritual crises that have engulfed the Northern portion mainly show that religious beliefs cannot be overlooked or wished away inside the Nigerian personal development. Several religious downturn have occurred in Nigeria.

They’ve been documented since academic dissertations for some of which. This piece of work does not want to start the discourse in religious assault anew yet only acknowledges the fact that as a persistent phenomenon it can be worth becoming explored additional. Thus “Boko Haram risk which attained global recognition and even press support ranging from July 2009 till day is a the central concentrate of the this study together with various other riots containing engulfed the Nigeria condition from 1999 till date which the majority of Nigeria educated elite assumed that faith and ethnicity were the essential causes.

The educated high level have carried out series of exploration on the actual causes of this violent riots maybe. Most have figured it can be followed and linked to the failure of governance in Nigeria. 1 . 2 ASSERTION OF CONCERNS The mistake of 1914 has polarised the Nigeria society together with it is citizens in which loyalty to the State is actually a mirage rather people shell out loyalty to their various people and ethnic groups the result of this may be traced to 1967 civil-war which break down the country or perhaps in the politics system which usually almost cause secession from the country together with the easterner thought to be the aggrieved ethnic in the war.

In the same way Nigeria includes a long good religious catastrophe which has influenced the personal instability of Nigeria. The maintasine riot of 1980 can be said to be the first main religious riot in Nigerian history, declaring about 800 lives. The Boko Haram insurgence in the northern area of the country which has been directed largely against the Christian believers, they have suffered a lot both equally physically, mentally, economically, mentally and even critical in the considerably North containing led politics writers and pundits to affirm that Boko Haram conflict offers its root base in Religion.

The pushed of this job will be to examine the root reasons behind political instability in Nigeria using religion and ethnicity being a paradigm. 1 ) 3 OPPORTUNITY OF THE RESEARCH. The study covers the affects of religion and ethnicity towards stabilization or in- leveling of the Nigeria political program it will cover how religion and racial have impacted on the political stability of Nigeria. Furthermore the study is going to emphasize more on the part the government is playing in backing the un-stabilized country. 1 . 4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The subsequent can be viewed as the aspires and goal of the examine 1 .

To know the meaning of faith, ethnicity, personal stability, and political lack of stability 2 . To be aware of how religious beliefs and ethnicity have in a negative way impacted on Nigerian politics development 3. To develop possible solutions and panaceas for the problems of religions and ethnicity to Nigerian personal in-stability 1 . 5 ANALYSIS QUESTIONS you What that means does religious beliefs, ethnicity and political instability carries two How provides religion and ethnicity influenced on the politics stability of Nigeria 3 what are the possible approaches to the problem of faith and racial in Nigeria political system 1 .

six JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY Various a expanding countries worldwide are currently your problems which will ethnicity and religion include caused. The ethnic issue which generated the racisme era in South Africa is also the same racial and religion problem that has almost diminished the Nigerian State. Keeping in mind back to what happen through the civil conflict in the late 60s and early seventies which in turn led to the introduction of the nationwide youth service corp. by the then armed forces president Standard Yakubu Gowon which aim integrating back again the nearly disintegrated region.

Books, Journals, Magazines, Essays, and lot of researches have been written and carried out correspondingly on the issue of racial and religious beliefs, and its impact on the Nigeria political balance. This study will function as an additional material to the concern on ethnicity and religious beliefs to politics instability in Nigeria, this kind of work will certainly focus even more on racial and religious beliefs and its effect on Nigerian national politics 1 . 7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology depends on second data collections ranging from literature, Journals Papers, News Mags, Pamphlets as well as the Internet.

In conducting any kind of research basically there are two methodologies utilized by researchers which are the primary as well as the secondary methods. This research work will be fundamentally conducted making use of the secondary method as mentioned before. 1 . 8DEFINITION OF CONDITIONS Ethnicity: In line with the oxford progress learners book ethnicity can easily mean “the fact of belonging to a specific race through the dictionary that means we can deduced the fact that Humans supported race and they have interest for competition which leads to humans ethnocentrism i. at the. highly ethnocentric in nature.

Ethnicity has a strategic interaction of people and other stars, who have diverse beliefs, attitude’s, values and goals as they decide particular conflict the distribution of resource’s and general problems of personal rules within a context of norms, objectives and organizations. Any of the regulation, expectation and institutions can be reversed, maintained or inverted by the person that win the right to control these people, in the course of these political talks that are sometimes called assistance, and sometimes named war, and are also usually somewhere within the two.

In another sense, cultural identity will be political resources just like money or election. Instrumentalist just like Micheal Banton and Micheal Hecthtar, believe ethnic personality are not inherent in group or socio-formation of people. They will see cultural identity since socio-capital brought to bear within the political discussion table by different groupings and at distinct times. Hutchinson and Smith also argue that ethnic identification are an important resource that political Elite employ in securing the support with the masses as a strategy for gaining a preferred good.

These kinds of goods as well as goals will be “measured with regards to wealth, electricity, and status and¦ signing up for or countrywide communities helps to secure these ends either by affecting the state, or perhaps in certain situations, through secession. Religion: religion on its own part can be considered to be the belief inside the existence of God or perhaps gods plus the activity which might be connected inside the worship of those. Religion can even be stress further more by which means one of the approach to faith which can be based on the idea in the living of a particular God or perhaps gods.

For example the Jewish religious beliefs, Christianity Islam and other world religion. Furthermore in the classical and historic ages religion has attained a lot in their politics as an example the doctrine of Islam utilized in many Arabic nations has their own constitution actually up until the present age group. The Historical Romans, likewise, during the time of Constantine accepted Christianity as a faith and a mode of life which will also damaged their personal terrain.

Religion in the 21 century is actually used directly towards Christianity and Islam even though different religion continue to exist but the former two religion have increased to prominence that additional religion are now beneath them. For instance regarding Political stability: can illustrate the imply of a system of politics in which the government of this State is definitely experiencing a well balanced government and peaceful presence in the Express or in otherworld’s a legitimately accepted government by the people. Democratically governed Says are believed to get stable.

In the global sense every personal entity must be ruled democratically without internal oppression or external aggression. Any country of the world that may be free from the aforementioned point are regarded as steady political program in other words interior oppression has cause a wide range of havoc to many democracies on the planet which has infringed on their balance as observed by Vista 2002. Descent Rule: They a larger pair of cases we commonly appreciate to be ethnic than the rules that cultural groups need to have a fantasy of common ancestry or perhaps common source.

But it excludes several circumstances in which people routinely consider themselves, and are considered as associates, of a group that we sort as ethnic even when their particular parents were not coded while members on this group. Take for instance the category “Yoruba when it was invented in Nigeria in the nineteenth century. At this time period, the parents of the people who were labeled as Yoruba were not themselves classified because Yoruba since this category would not exist during their lifetimes.

According to Descent Rule, then, the category Yoruba in the nineteenth century would not be coded as cultural. But the category Yoruba is usually universally coded as a great ethnic category by every comparative politics scientists, with out making a distinction between time periods. As another example, consider the category “Backward Caste in India, including as users individuals who held a given group of last labels and/or our ancestors occupations. The category was presented by the American indian Central Authorities in 1990.

Within a few years, 52% of the Indian human population classified itself and was classified while backward. Yet the parents of people who called themselves “Backward Caste are not coded on their own or by others while “Backward Caste because, as with the case of the first generation of Yoruba’s, this category would not exist throughout their lifetimes Democracy: According to Abraham Lincoln he specifies democracy as the government from the people by the people and for the people.

From this wise democracy connotes a system of government through which all the people in a nation will have the outright say on the federal government of their country although in a representative manner meaning that they will elect reps that will signify their interest in the government. Advanced countries in case the world in which democracy is usually practiced completely they have countrywide identity as opposed to the developing globe where they may have ethnic id.

Advanced democracies always trust in secularism by which every religion is acknowledged and embraced not a program in which part will have cognisance to a religion and the various other will have confidence in other faith causing significant tension in such states like Nigeria. Federalism: Elasar (cited in Akande, 1996: 1) the formation of Eu (EU) which simply begun as a trading partnership intended for coal and steel is now moving towards a more bundled political union founded upon federal theory of governance.

The Photography equipment union (AU) which is the federation of African areas where a central government can be created with sharing or label of power among the federating device, even the world highest firm body united Nation have in some small degree, advanced the theory of federalism. Federalism can be described as system of govt which sees unity in diversity. Federalism as a system of government is usually one in which in turn there will be central and local governments each one autonomous of each different.

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