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A laboratory experiment on the identified compound


Thickness Lab

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Purpose: The goal of this laboratory was to appreciate mass, volume and density and its associations with each other. The goal of the students was to measure the mass and volume level as well as calculate the density of the specific substances and identify these substances.

Hypothesis: In the event the densities from the substances happen to be tested, then the densities from the substances will probably be independent from the amount of mass because density is usually calculated in proportion to volume as well as mass.

Theory: Density is usually described as the number of substance in a specific compound. Density is usually calculated by dividing mass over amount. Mass is identified as the amount of subject in a substance and volume level is described as the amount of space that subject takes up. Volume level is determined by possibly taking the sizes of the stable or by making use of water shift. Water displacement measures the quantity in milliliters while the proportions are scored in cm3, however , the two are the same. Volume displacement is measured by taking the mass in the cylinder and water deducted by the cylinder, water and object.


  • Independent Changing: Increasing Mass
  • Dependent Variable: Increasing Denseness
  • Controlled Variables: Type of tube, temperature of substance


  • 1 15 mL graduated cylinder
  • 1 twenty-five mL graduated cylinder
  • 1 60 mL graduated cylinder
  • Unspecific sum of faucet water
  • Unspecific amount of ethanol (95% ethanol, five per cent water)
  • Unspecific amount of lightweight aluminum balls
  • 1 digital balance measured to the 100th place
  • 1 cyndrical tube of copper
  • one particular cylinder of zinc
  • 1 cyndrical tube of metal
  • one particular cylinder of aluminum
  • Ruler in millimeters
  • Procedure:

  • Poured water into 10 mL graduated cyndrical tube
  • Computed mass of cylinder with digital balance
  • Calculated mass of water with digital balance
  • Worked out volume of cyndrical tube with measurements on cyndrical tube
  • Calculated density employing measurements by previous methods
  • Repeated steps 1-4 with 25 mL graduated cylinder
  • Repeated methods 1-4 with 50 cubic centimeters graduated tube
  • Repeated steps 1-6 with ethanol
  • Determined mass of cylinder plus mass of water in 50 mL beaker employing digital balance
  • Calculated mass of cylinder plus mass of water plus mass of aluminum balls
  • Deducted step being unfaithful from stage 10 to get mass of light weight aluminum balls
  • Calculated primary volume of water before light weight aluminum balls
  • Calculated volume of water following aluminum golf balls
  • Deducted step 12 from step 13 to get volume of aluminum tennis balls
  • Computed density of aluminum balls with past measurements
  • Repeated arises 9 to fifteen two more times
  • Measured copper mineral on digital balance
  • Measured radius and height of birdwatcher using ruler
  • Calculated initial amount of water before copper
  • Calculated amount of water following copper
  • Subtracted step 19 by step twenty to receive volume of birdwatcher
  • Determined density of copper with previous measurements
  • Repeated steps seventeen to 22 with Zinc
  • Repeated steps 17 to twenty two with Metal
  • Repeated steps 17 to 22 with Lightweight aluminum
  • Qualitative Observations:

    • Water levels rose whenever aluminum balls were added
    • Drinking water was specific, similar to ethanol
    • Ethanol had a plebeyo smell
    • Increasing volume of drinking water in cyndrical tube increased mass of drinking water
    • Water piping was a mild shiny darkish
    • Dureté was a mix of light darkish and discolored
    • Zinc was a light shiny dreary
    • Aluminum was a lighter gray than zinc


    Throughout the test, the densities of the substances stayed fairly the same. The results of the water and ethanol research were very precise since they stayed in a small border. The data was expected based upon previous comes from other experiments. The objective of the experiment was met as the densities had been calculated plus the mass and volumes in the substances. The hypothesis was expected and supported by the results because the densities remained relatively the same even when the mass was increased. In the three studies of drinking water and ethanol, the increasing amount of mass would not result in an increasing amount of density as the volume improved as well. The densities with the substances are not accurate with all the accepted ideals. The experimental value of water was 0. 980 grams/mL plus the experimental worth of ethanol was zero. 797 grams/mL. The recognized value of water was 0. 998 grams/mL and the accepted benefit of ethanol was zero. 789 grams/mL. The worked out substances with the least percentage error were the water and ethanol with 1 . 8% and zero. 8% error, respectively. Alternatively, the densities of the precious metals were extremely inaccurate. Out of all the substances, the zinc was the most erroneous with a percentage error of 11. 1%. The experimental value intended for zinc was 7. 80 grams/mL as well as the accepted value was 7. 13 grams/mL. The additional substances went from a percentage error of 4. 4%, while using copper and 7. 3%-7. 4% with the brass and aluminum. The experimental benefit of water piping was almost eight. 57 grams/mL and the accepted value was 8. ninety six grams/mL. In addition , the trial and error values of brass and aluminum were 9. 01 grams/mL and 2 . 90 grams/mL, respectively, and the accepted values were 8. forty grams/mL and 2 . 75 grams/mL. Three trials had been conducted intended for the densities of normal water, ethanol plus the aluminum tennis balls but merely one trial was conducted to get the material cylinders. Two of the trial and error values were below the approved value as well as the other 4 values had been above the acknowledged values. The water and ethanol were very similar with only 0. 018 grams/mL and 0. 008grams/mL off from the accepted value. This difference resulted in the little percentage error. However , the metals a new higher difference in quantity. The lightweight aluminum was zero. 201 grams/mL above the accepted value even though the copper was 0. 39 grams/mL below the accepted worth. The zinc and instruments had an a whole lot larger amount off with 0. 79 grams/mL and 0. 61 grams/mL, respectively. The two results were above the accepted benefit.

    Evaluation of Procedure:

    The main weak point of the method was the unspecified amount of water, ethanol and lightweight aluminum balls utilized in the test. Also, the metals found in the research could have been polluted prior to the research. This fresh bias could have changed the results in the experiment. The meniscus with the graduated cylinders also damaged the calculations. The procedure was also certainly not written straight down prior or during the research laboratory period. There were also simply no set amount of water, ethanol or perhaps aluminum projectiles in the treatment. There were just three trials for this particular, ethanol and aluminum ball experiment and later one trial for the metals. In addition , the managed to graduate cylinder only measured to 1 tenth of your millimeter with the meniscus. While all the steel cylinders seemed to have the same volume level, the data shown a fluctuation in the volume level. This fluxuation could have resulted in a bigger difference between the trial and error value as well as the accepted value. Between chemicals, the graduated cylinder has not been cleaned or perhaps dried.

    Enhancing the Investigation:

    The experiment could possibly be improved having a set quantity of drinking water, ethanol and aluminum tennis balls as well as a even more precise ruler. Additionally , additional time to the test would give invisalign reporter more time to evaluate the mass and volume. Provided the time restraint, the students had to rush to get all the information needed. The precision of the balance could also be increased to increase the precision from the experiment. More trials together with the metals and also other substances gives a better range of results. These trials might add to the repository and give a precise reading that might be more accurate for the accepted worth. Also, further trials would eliminate complications with experimental problem. These studies would give an accurate volume together with the ruler plus the graduated tube. After every single trial, the graduated cyl could have been cleaned to eliminate systematic error.

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