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Homosexual Parenting Dissertation

Saphic girls and Homosexual Parenting Composition


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Charlotte T. Patterson

University of Virginia

Like households headed simply by heterosexual parents, lesbian and gay father and mother and their children are a diverse group (Martin, 1993).

Unlike heterosexual parents and their children, however , lesbian and gay parents and their children are often be subject to prejudice as a result of sexual positioning that converts judges, legislators, professionals, and the auto industry against these people, frequently leading to negative results such as decrease of physical guardianship, restrictions on visitation, and prohibitions against adoption (Falk, 1989, Publishers of the Harvard Law Assessment, 1990). Just like all socially stigmatized organizations, the beliefs held generally in society about lesbians and gay and lesbian men are usually not based in personal encounter, but are instead culturally transmitted (Herek 1991).

The purpose of this summary of exploration findings in lesbian and gay parents and their kids is to help psychologists and other professionals to evaluate widespread beliefs in the mild of scientific data and in this way improve, meliorate, amend, better the negative effects of unwarranted prejudice.

Because many beliefs about lesbian and gay father and mother and their children are open to empirical test, psychological research can easily evaluate their accuracy. Organized research assessing lesbian and gay adults to heterosexual adults simply began in the late

1950s, and research contrasting children of gay and lesbian parents with the ones from heterosexual father and mother is of a far more recent vintage. Research about lesbian and gay adults began with Evelyn Hookers landmark research (1957) and culminated while using

declassification of homosexuality as being a mental disorder in 1973 (Gonsiorek, 1991). Case reviews on kids of gay and lesbian parents started to appear in the psychiatric books in the early 1970s (e. g., Osman, 1972, Several weeks, Derdeyn, Langman 1975) and still have continued to show up (e. g., Agbayewa, 1984). Beginning with the pioneering work of Martin and Lyon (1972)

first-person and fictionalized descriptions of life in lesbian mom families have also become available (e. g., Alpert, 1988 Clausen, 1985, Jullion, 1985, Troldmand, 1975, Perreault, 1975, Pollock, Vaughn, 1987, Rafkin, 1990).

Methodical research on the children of lesbian and gay parents did not, however , begin to come in major specialist journals right up until 1978, and many of the available research has been printed more recently.

As this kind of summary displays, the effects of existing research comparing gay and lesbian parents to heterosexual parents and children of gay or perhaps lesbian father and mother to kids of heterosexual parents are quite uniform: prevalent sterotypes aren’t supported by data.

Without denying the clarity of results to date, it is necessary also to get psychologists and other professionals to keep yourself informed that analysis in this area has presented a number of methodological difficulties, not all that have been surmounted in every analyze. As is authentic in any area of research, concerns have been raised with regard to sampling issues, statistical power, and other technical things (e. g., Belcastro, Gramlich, Nicholson, Price, Wilson, 1993), no individual study is entirely immortals to these kinds of criticism.

One criticism with this body of research (Belcastro et approach., 1993) have been that the analysis lacks exterior validity because it may certainly not be associated with the larger inhabitants of lesbian and gay parents. This kind of criticism can be not validated, because no one knows

some of the composition of the entire inhabitants of saphic girls mothers, homosexual fathers, or their children (many of whom choose to stay hidden) and so researchers are unable to possible evaluate the degree to which particular trials do or perhaps do not symbolize the population. In the long run, it is not the results obtained from any one particular sample, but the accumulation of findings from many different selections that will be most meaningful.

Research in this field has also been criticized for employing poorly combined or no control groups in designs that call for this kind of controls. Specifically notable in this category has been the tendency in a few studies to compare creation among kids of a grouping of divorced lesbian mothers, many of whom reside with lesbian porn partners, to that among children of a band of

divorced heterosexual mothers who are not at the moment living with heterosexual partners. It will be very important to future exploration to disentangle maternal sexual orientation coming from maternal position as partnered or unpartnered.

Other criticisms have been completely that most studies have included relatively small samples, that there have been insufficiencies in analysis procedures employed in some studies, and that the classification of parents because lesbian, homosexual, or heterosexual has sometimes been problematic (e. g., some females.

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