Term Count: 4976
Lesbian and Gay Parenting
I. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH STUDIES
Charlotte J. Patterson
Just like families headed by heterosexual parents, lesbian porn and gay and lesbian parents and their children are a diverse group (Martin, 1993).
Contrary to heterosexual parents and their children, however , saphic girls and gay and lesbian parents and their children are often subject to
prejudice because of intimate orientation that turns judges, legislators, experts, and the public against them, usually resulting in negative outcomes just like loss of physical custody, restrictions on visiting, and prohibitions against re-homing (Falk, 1989, Editors in the Harvard Rules Review, 1990). As with all socially stigmatized groups, the beliefs kept generally in society regarding lesbians and gay males are often certainly not based in personal experience, tend to be instead widely transmitted (Herek 1991).
The purpose of this kind of summary of research conclusions on lesbian and gay and lesbian parents and the children is usually to assist psychologists and other specialists to evaluate widespread beliefs in the light of empirical data and in in this way ameliorate the negative associated with unwarranted bias.
Since many beliefs about lesbian porn and gay parents and their children are accessible to empirical evaluation, psychological study can assess their accuracy and reliability. Systematic research comparing lesbian porn and gay and lesbian adults to heterosexual adults only started out in the late 1950s, and analysis comparing children of gay and lesbian parents with those of heterosexual parents is of a more recent vintage. Research on lesbian porn and gay adults began with Evelyn Hookers landmark study (1957) and culminated with the declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1973 (Gonsiorek, 1991). Case reports upon children of gay and lesbian father and mother began to come in the psychiatric literature inside the early 1970s (e. g., Osman, 1972, Weeks, Derdeyn, Langman 1975) and have continuing to appear (e. g., Agbayewa, 1984). You start with the pioneering work of Martin and Lyon (1972) first person and fictionalized explanations of lifestyle in saphic girls mother family members have also become available (e. g., Alpert, 1988 Clausen, 85, Jullion, 1985, Mager, 75, Perreault, 1975, Pollock, Vaughn, 1987, Rafkin, 1990).
Systematic exploration on the kids of lesbian and homosexual parents did not, however , set out to appear in key professional magazines until 78, and most of the readily available research has been published lately.
While this summary will show, the results of existing research comparing lgbt parents to heterosexual father and mother and kids of homosexual or lesbian parents to children of heterosexual mom and dad are quite standard: common sterotypes are not supported by the info.
With out denying the clarity of results to date, it is important likewise for psychologists and other professionals to be aware that research in this field has offered a variety of methodological challenges, not every of which have been completely surmounted in every single study. As true in different area of research, questions have already been raised with regards to sampling concerns, statistical electricity, and other specialized matters (e. g., Belcastro, Gramlich, Nicholson, Price, Pat, 1993), no individual research is entirely invincible to such critique.
One criticism of this body of study (Belcastro et al., 1993) has been the research does not have external validity because it may possibly not be representative of the bigger population of lesbian and gay father and mother. This criticism is certainly not justified, since nobody knows
the actual formula of the complete population of lesbian mothers, gay dads, or their children (many of whom want to remain hidden) and hence experts cannot feasible evaluate the level to which particular samples do or tend not to represent the citizenry. In the long run, it is not the effects obtained from anyone specific test, but the piling up of results from a number of samples that is to be most significant.
Exploration in this area is criticized for using poorly matched or any control teams in designs that necessitate such controls. Particularly noteworthy in this c tegory has been the tendency in some studies to compare development between children of a group of single lesbian moms, many of which are living with lesbian lovers, to that between children of any group of divorced heterosexual mothers who aren’t currently coping with heterosexual partners.
Will probably be important for future research to disentangle mother’s sexual positioning from mother’s status because partnered or perhaps unpartnered.
Other criticisms have been that a lot of studies include involved relatively small examples, that there have been inadequacies in assessment types of procedures employed in a few studies, and the classification of fogeys as saphic girls, gay, or heterosexual offers sometimes been problematic.Get your custom Essay